Obesity: A Salient Killer (Major Health Problem in India and World)
Obesity is a chronic condition defined by an excess amount of body fat. Obesity is best defined by using the body mass index.
The body mass index is calculated using a person’s height and weight. The body mass index (BMI) equals a person’s weight in kilograms (kg) divided by their height in meters (m) squared. Since BMI describes body weight relative to height, it is strongly correlated with total body fat content in adults. A BMI of 18.5-24-9 is considered as normal weight. An adult who has a BMI of 25-29.9 is considered overweight, and an adult who has a BMI over 30 is considered obese.
Obesity in India has reached epidemic proportions in the 21st century, with morbid obesity affecting 5% of the country’s population. India is following a trend of other developing countries that are steadily becoming more obese. Rapid urbanisation along with rising income and sedentry lifestyles have all been associated with rising levels of obesity. Obesity has been linked to a host of illnesses including diabetes, cardiovascular disease and breathing disorders.
What Causes Overweight and Obesity?
Lack of Energy Balance
An Inactive Lifestyle
Genes and Family History
Health Conditions like hypothyroidism,cushing syndrome and PCOD
Medicines like antidepressants,corticosteroids and antiepileptics
Lack of Sleep
Obesity can lead to lot of medical problems/conditions such as
* Coronary heart disease
* High blood pressure
* Stroke * Type 2 diabetes
* Sleep apnea
* Infertility or irregular periods
Congestive heart failure, Coronary artery disease, Hyperlipidemia, Hypertension, Left ventricular hypertrophy, Venous stasis ulcers, thrombophlebitis
Insulin resistance, Polycystic ovary syndrome, Type 2 diabetes
Gastrointestinal and hepatobiliary
Abdominal hernia, Gallstones, Gastroesophageal reflux disease, Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease
Stress urinary incontinence, Urinary tract infections
Deep venous thrombosis ,Pulmonary embolism
Carpal tunnel syndrome
Degenerative joint disease
Gout, Plantar fasciitis
Neurologic and psychiatric
Anxiety ,Depression ,Pseudotumor cerebri ,Stroke
Obstetric and gynecologic
Fetal abnormalities and infant mortality, Gestational diabetes, Infertility Miscarriage
Asthma, Obesity hypoventilation syndrome ,Obstructive sleep apnea, Pulmonary hypertension
Fastest option to reduce weight is:
Surgical option (Bariatric surgery)
What is the bariatric surgery?
Weight loss is achieved by reducing the size of the stomach with a gastric band or through removal of a portion of the stomach (sleeve gastrectomy or biliopancreatic diversion with duodenal switch) or by resecting and re-routing the small intestine to a small stomach pouch (gastric bypass surgery).
There are many forms of obesity surgery, but often surgery reduces the size of the stomach so that only a small amount of food can be eaten comfortably. Some of the terms used to describe the surgeries used to treat obesity include:
* gastric surgery(Sleeve gastrectomy)
* gastric bypass surgery like Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and Mini gastric bypass
* laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding
* Duodenal switch with biliopancreatic diversion
* Single anastomosis duodeno-ileal bypass (SADI)
* What is gastric bypass surgery and how does it work?
Gastric bypass surgery makes the stomach smaller and causes food to bypass part of the small intestine. You will feel full more quickly than when your stomach was its original size. This reduces the amount of food you can eat at one time. Bypassing part of the intestine reduces how much food and nutrients are absorbed.
* Candidates for bariatric surgery
An ideal candidate for the bariatric surgery would be –
Body mass index (BMI) of 40 kg/m2 or BMI 35 kg/m2 with significant obesity-related co-morbidities
Psychologically stable with realistic expectations
Well-informed and motivated patient
Supportive family/social environment
Absence of uncontrolled psychotic or depressive disorder
No active alcohol or substance abuse
Benefits of Bariatric Surgery
Severe Obesity: Why the Need for Surgical Intervention
Severe obesity is one of the most serious stages of obesity. You may often find yourself struggling with your weight and essentially feeling as if you’re trapped in a weight gain cycle. In addition, you most likely have attempted numerous diets – only in the end, to see your weight continue to increase.
How Can Bariatric Surgery Help Me?
When combined with a comprehensive treatment plan, bariatric surgery may often act as an effective tool to provide you with long term weight-loss and help you increase your quality of health. Bariatric surgery has been shown to help improve or resolve many obesity-related conditions, such as type 2 diabetes, high blood pressure, heart disease,hypothyroidism and more. Frequently, individuals who improve their weight find themselves taking less and less medications to treat their obesity-related conditions.
Significant weight loss through bariatric surgery may also pave the way for many other exciting opportunities for you, your family, and most importantly – your health.
Changes in Quality of Life and Psychological Status with Surgery
In addition to improvements in health and longevity, surgical weight-loss improves overall quality of life. Measures of quality of life that are positively affected by bariatric surgery include physical functions such as mobility, self-esteem, work, social interactions, and sexual function. Singlehood is significantly reduced, as is unemployment and disability. Furthermore, depression and anxiety are significantly reduced following bariatric surgery.