All Medical Procedures

The fecal occult blood test (FOBT) is a lab test used to check stool samples for hidden (occult) blood.

Occult blood in the stool may indicate colon cancer or polyps in the colon or rectum — though not all cancers or polyps bleed.

Typically, occult blood is passed in such small amounts that it can be detected only through the chemicals used in a fecal occult blood test.

If blood is detected through a fecal occult blood test, additional tests may be needed to determine the source of the bleeding. The fecal occult blood test can only detect the presence or absence of blood — it doesn't indicate potential sources of bleeding.

A urine microalbumin test is a test to detect very small levels of a blood protein (albumin) in your urine. A microalbumin test is used to detect early signs of kidney damage in people who have a risk of kidney disease.

Healthy kidneys filter waste from your blood and keep the healthy components, such as proteins like albumin. Kidney damage can cause proteins to leak through your kidneys and leave your body in your urine. Albumin (al-BYOO-min) is one of the first proteins to leak when kidneys become damaged.

Microalbumin tests are recommended for people with an increased risk of kidney disease, such as those with type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes or high blood pressure.

The stool DNA test is a noninvasive laboratory test that identifies DNA changes in the cells of a stool sample. The stool DNA test specifically looks for DNA alterations associated with colon polyps and colon cancer.

The major goal of the stool DNA test is to detect whether DNA changes that indicate colon cancer or precancerous polyps are present in the colon.

One stool DNA test (Cologuard) is approved for use the United States.

Urinalysis is a test that evaluates a sample of your urine. Urinalysis is used to detect and assess a wide range of disorders, such as urinary tract infection, kidney disease and diabetes.

Urinalysis involves examining the appearance, concentration and content of urine. Abnormal urinalysis results may point to a disease or illness. For example, a urinary tract infection can make urine look cloudy instead of clear. Increased levels of protein in urine can be a sign of kidney disease.

Abnormal results of a urinalysis often require more testing and evaluation to uncover the source of the problem.