Amniotic fluid embolism

An amniotic fluid embolism is a rare but serious condition that occurs when amniotic fluid — the fluid that surrounds a baby in the uterus during pregnancy — or fetal material, such as hair, enters the maternal bloodstream.

An amniotic fluid embolism is most likely to occur during childbirth or immediately afterward.

An amniotic fluid embolism is difficult to diagnose. If your doctor suspects you might have an amniotic fluid embolism, you'll need immediate treatment to prevent potentially life-threatening complications.

Symptoms Causes Risk factors Complications

An amniotic fluid embolism develops suddenly and rapidly.

Signs and symptoms of an amniotic fluid embolism might include:

  • Sudden shortness of breath
  • Excess fluid in the lungs (pulmonary edema)
  • Sudden low blood pressure
  • Sudden circulatory failure (cardiovascular collapse)
  • Life-threatening problems with blood clotting (disseminated intravascular coagulopathy)
  • Altered mental status, such as anxiety
  • Nausea or vomiting
  • Chills
  • Rapid heart rate or disturbances in the rhythm of the heart rate
  • Fetal distress, such as a slow heart rate
  • Seizures
  • Coma

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