Atrial septal defect (ASD)

An atrial septal defect (ASD) is a hole in the wall between the two upper chambers of your heart (atria). The condition is present from birth (congenital). Small atrial septal defects may close on their own during infancy or early childhood.

Large and long-standing atrial septal defects can damage your heart and lungs. Small defects may never cause a problem and may be found incidentally. An adult who has had an undetected atrial septal defect for decades may have a shortened life span from heart failure or high blood pressure that affects the arteries in the lungs (pulmonary hypertension). Surgery may be necessary to repair atrial septal defects to prevent complications.

Symptoms Causes Risk factors Complications Prevention

Many babies born with atrial septal defects don't have associated signs or symptoms. In adults, signs or symptoms usually begin by age 30, but in some cases signs and symptoms may not occur until decades later.

Atrial septal defect signs and symptoms may include:

  • Shortness of breath, especially when exercising
  • Fatigue
  • Swelling of legs, feet or abdomen
  • Heart palpitations or skipped beats
  • Frequent lung infections
  • Stroke
  • Heart murmur, a whooshing sound that can be heard through a stethoscope

When to see a doctor

Contact your doctor if you or your child has any of these signs or symptoms:

  • Shortness of breath
  • Tiring easily, especially after activity
  • Swelling of legs, feet or abdomen
  • Heart palpitations or skipped beats

These could be signs or symptoms of heart failure or another complication of congenital heart disease.

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