Bile reflux occurs when bile — a digestive liquid produced in your liver — backs up (refluxes) into your stomach and esophagus (the tube that connects your mouth and stomach). Bile reflux may accompany acid reflux, the medical term for the backwash of stomach acids into your esophagus.
Whether bile is important in reflux is controversial. Bile is often implicated as a cause of reflux when people respond incompletely or not at all to powerful acid-suppressant medications. But there is little evidence pinpointing the effects of bile reflux in people. Studies in lab animals indicate that over time, bile reflux may have serious consequences, potentially increasing your risk of esophageal cancer.
Unlike acid reflux, bile reflux usually can't be completely controlled by changes in diet or lifestyle. Instead, bile reflux is most often managed with medications or, in severe cases, with surgery.