Bladder stones

Bladder stones are hard masses of minerals in your bladder. Bladder stones develop when urine in your bladder becomes concentrated, causing minerals in your urine to crystallize. Concentrated, stagnant urine is often the result of not being able to completely empty your bladder.

Bladder stones don't always cause signs or symptoms and may be discovered during tests for other problems. When symptoms do occur, they can range from abdominal pain to blood in your urine.

Small bladder stones sometimes pass on their own, but you may need to have others removed by your doctor. Left untreated, bladder stones can cause infections and other complications.

Symptoms Causes Risk factors Complications Prevention

Some people with bladder stones have no problems — even when their stones are large. But if a stone irritates the bladder wall or blocks the flow of urine, signs and symptoms can develop. These include:

  • Lower abdominal pain
  • In men, pain or discomfort in the penis
  • Painful urination
  • Frequent urination
  • Difficulty urinating or interruption of urine flow
  • Blood in your urine
  • Cloudy or abnormally dark-colored urine

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