A brain AVM (arteriovenous malformation) may not cause any signs or symptoms until the AVM ruptures, resulting in bleeding in the brain (hemorrhage). However, some people with an AVM may have symptoms other than bleeding that are related to the AVM.
An AVM may also be detected on a brain scan performed for reasons unrelated to the AVM.
Symptoms of a brain AVM include:
- A whooshing sound (bruit) that can be heard on examination of the skull with a stethoscope or may be audible if you have an AVM
- Progressive weakness or numbness
Some people may experience more-serious neurological symptoms, depending on the location of the AVM, including:
- Severe headache
- Weakness, numbness or paralysis
- Vision loss
- Difficulty speaking
- Inability to understand others
- Severe unsteadiness
Symptoms may begin at any age, but you're more likely to experience symptoms between ages 10 and 40. Brain AVM can damage brain tissue over time. The effects slowly build up, sometimes causing symptoms in early adulthood.
Once you reach middle age, however, brain AVMs tend to remain stable and are less likely to cause symptoms.
Some pregnant women may have worsened symptoms. However, it's not clear that pregnant women are at greater risk of an AVM bleeding. More research is needed to determine the risk during pregnancy.
When to see a doctor
Seek immediate medical attention if you notice any signs or symptoms of a brain AVM, such as seizures, headaches or other symptoms. A bleeding brain AVM is life-threatening and requires emergency medical attention.