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Broken collarbone

A broken collarbone is a common injury, particularly in children and young adults. Your collarbone connects the upper part of your breastbone to your shoulder blade. Common causes of a broken collarbone include falls, sports injuries and trauma from traffic accidents. Infants can sometimes experience a broken collarbone during the birth process.

If you think you or your child has a broken collarbone, seek prompt medical attention. Most broken collarbones heal well with ice, pain relievers, a sling, physical therapy and time. But a complicated broken collarbone may require surgery to realign the broken bone and to implant plates, screws or rods into the bone to maintain proper alignment during healing.

Symptoms Causes Risk factors Complications

Signs and symptoms of a broken collarbone include:

  • Pain that increases with shoulder movement
  • Swelling
  • Tenderness
  • Bruising
  • A bulge on or near your shoulder
  • A grinding or crackling sound when you try to move your shoulder
  • Stiffness or inability to move your shoulder

When to see a doctor

If you notice any of the signs or symptoms of a broken collarbone, or if you have enough pain in your shoulder that you can't use it normally, see a doctor right away. Do the same for your child. Delays in diagnosis and treatment of a broken collarbone can lead to poor healing.

Common causes of a broken collarbone include:

  • Falls. Falling onto your shoulder or onto your outstretched hand can result in a broken collarbone.
  • Sports injuries. A direct blow to your shoulder from an injury on the field, rink or court can cause a broken collarbone.
  • Vehicle trauma. A broken collarbone can be the result of a car, motorcycle or bike accident.
  • Birth injury. In newborns, a broken collarbone can occur during the birthing process.

Your collarbone doesn't harden completely until about age 20. This puts children and teenagers at higher risk of a broken collarbone. The risk decreases after age 20, but then rises again in older people as bone strength decreases with age.

Most broken collarbones heal without difficulty. But complications may include:

  • Nerve or blood vessel injury. The jagged ends of a broken collarbone may injure nearby nerves and blood vessels. Seek immediate medical attention if you notice any numbness or coldness in your arm or hand.
  • Poor or delayed healing. A severely broken collarbone may not heal quickly or completely. Poor union of the bones during healing may cause the bone to be shorter than it was before the break.
  • A lump in the bone. As part of the healing process, the place where the bone knits together forms a bony lump. This lump is easy to see because it's so close to the skin. While they usually disappear over time, some lumps are permanent.
  • Bone infection. If any part of your broken bone protrudes through your skin, it may be exposed to germs that can cause infection. Prompt treatment of this type of fracture is critical.
  • Osteoarthritis. If the fracture involves the joints that connect your collarbone to your shoulder blade or your breastbone, you may be at increased risk of eventually developing arthritis in that joint.
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