As per the GOI circular on price capping of Orthopaedic Knee implant by NPPA(National Pharmaceutical Pricing Authority), new prices of knee implants have been implemented effective 16th August 2017. For details on knee implant pricing across our hospitals. CLICK HERE | As per GOI’s circular dated 02nd April 2018 on price-capping of stents by NPPA(National Pharmaceutical Pricing Authority), new prices of coronary stents are revised with effect from 01st April, 2018. For details on stent pricing.CLICK HERE
Request an Appointment

Coma

Coma is a state of prolonged unconsciousness that can be caused by a variety of problems — traumatic head injury, stroke, brain tumor, drug or alcohol intoxication, or even an underlying illness, such as diabetes or an infection.

Coma is a medical emergency. Swift action is needed to preserve life and brain function. Doctors normally order a battery of blood tests and a brain CT scan to try to determine what's causing the coma so that proper treatment can begin.

Comas seldom last longer than several weeks. People who are unconscious for a longer period of time may transition to a persistent vegetative state. Depending on the cause of coma, people who are in a persistent vegetative state for more than one year are extremely unlikely to awaken.

Symptoms Causes Complications

The signs and symptoms of coma commonly include:

  • Closed eyes
  • Depressed brainstem reflexes, such as pupils not responding to light
  • No responses of limbs, except for reflex movements
  • No response to painful stimuli, except for reflex movements
  • Irregular breathing

When to see a doctor

Coma is a medical emergency. Seek immediate medical care.

Many types of problems can cause coma. Some examples are:

  • Traumatic brain injuries. Traumatic brain injuries, often caused by traffic collisions or acts of violence, are common causes of comas.
  • Stroke. Reduced or interrupted blood supply to the brain (stroke), which may be caused by blocked arteries or a burst blood vessel, can result in coma.
  • Tumors. Tumors in the brain or brainstem can cause coma.
  • Diabetes. In people with diabetes, blood sugar levels that become too high (hyperglycemia) or too low (hypoglycemia) can cause a stroke or coma.
  • Lack of oxygen. People who have been rescued from drowning or those who have been resuscitated after a heart attack may not awaken due to lack of oxygen to the brain.
  • Infections. Infections such as encephalitis and meningitis cause swelling (inflammation) of the brain, spinal cord or the tissues that surround the brain. Severe cases of these infections can result in brain damage or coma.
  • Seizures. Ongoing seizures may lead to coma.
  • Toxins. Exposure to toxins, such as carbon monoxide or lead, can cause brain damage and coma.
  • Drugs and alcohol. Overdosing on drugs or alcohol can result in coma.

Although many people gradually recover from coma, others enter a vegetative state or die. Some people who recover from a coma may have major or minor disabilities.

Complications may develop during coma, including pressure sores, bladder infections and other problems.

© 1998-2015 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research (MFMER). All rights reserved. Terms of use