Prolactinoma is a condition in which a usually noncancerous tumor (adenoma) of the pituitary gland in your brain overproduces the hormone prolactin. The major effect of increased prolactin is a decrease in levels of some sex hormones — estrogen in women and testosterone in men.

Although prolactinoma isn't life-threatening, it can impair your vision, cause infertility and produce other effects. Prolactinoma is one of several types of tumors that can develop in your pituitary gland.

Doctors can often effectively treat prolactinoma with medications to restore your prolactin level to normal. Surgery to remove the pituitary tumor also may be an option to treat prolactinoma.

Symptoms Causes Risk factors Complications

Sometimes, there may be no noticeable signs or symptoms from prolactinoma. When signs and symptoms are present, they may be caused by excessive prolactin in your blood (hyperprolactinemia) or, if the tumor is large, from the pressure of the tumor on surrounding tissues. Because elevated levels of the hormone prolactin cause disruption of the reproductive system (hypogonadism), some of the signs and symptoms of prolactinoma are specific to females or males.

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