As per the GOI circular on price capping of Orthopaedic Knee implant by NPPA(National Pharmaceutical Pricing Authority), new prices of knee implants have been implemented effective 16th August 2017. For details on knee implant pricing across our hospitals. CLICK HERE | As per GOI’s circular dated 02nd April 2018 on price-capping of stents by NPPA(National Pharmaceutical Pricing Authority), new prices of coronary stents are revised with effect from 01st April, 2018. For details on stent pricing.CLICK HERE
Request an Appointment

Stomach cancer

Stomach cancer is cancer that occurs in the stomach — the muscular sac located in the upper middle of your abdomen, just below your ribs. Your stomach receives and holds the food you eat and then helps to break down and digest it.

Another term for stomach cancer is gastric cancer. These two terms most often refer to stomach cancer that begins in the mucus-producing cells on the inside lining of the stomach (adenocarcinoma). Adenocarcinoma is the most common type of stomach cancer.

Stomach cancer is uncommon in the United States, and the number of people diagnosed with the disease each year is declining. Stomach cancer is much more common in other areas of the world, particularly China and Japan.

Symptoms Causes Risk factors Prevention

Signs and symptoms of stomach cancer may include:

  • Fatigue
  • Feeling bloated after eating
  • Feeling full after eating small amounts of food
  • Heartburn that is severe and persistent
  • Indigestion that is severe and unrelenting
  • Nausea that is persistent and unexplained
  • Stomach pain
  • Vomiting that is persistent
  • Weight loss that is unintentional

When to see a doctor

If you have signs and symptoms that worry you, make an appointment with your doctor. Your doctor will likely investigate more common causes of these signs and symptoms first.

Doctors aren't sure what causes stomach cancer. There is a strong correlation between a diet high in smoked, salted and pickled foods and stomach cancer. As the use of refrigeration for preserving foods has increased around the world, the rates of stomach cancer have declined.

In general, cancer begins when an error (mutation) occurs in a cell's DNA. The mutation causes the cell to grow and divide at a rapid rate and to continue living when a normal cell would die. The accumulating cancerous cells form a tumor that can invade nearby structures. And cancer cells can break off from the tumor to spread throughout the body.

Types of stomach cancer

The cells that form the tumor determine the type of stomach cancer. The type of cells in your stomach cancer helps determine your treatment options. Types of stomach cancer include:

  • Cancer that begins in the glandular cells (adenocarcinoma). The glandular cells that line the inside of the stomach secrete a protective layer of mucus to shield the lining of the stomach from the acidic digestive juices. Adenocarcinoma accounts for the great majority of all stomach cancers.
  • Cancer that begins in immune system cells (lymphoma). The walls of the stomach contain a small number of immune system cells that can develop cancer. Lymphoma in the stomach is rare.
  • Cancer that begins in hormone-producing cells (carcinoid cancer). Hormone-producing cells can develop carcinoid cancer. Carcinoid cancer in the stomach is rare.
  • Cancer that begins in nervous system tissues. A gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) begins in specific nervous system cells found in your stomach. GIST is a rare form of stomach cancer.

Because the other types of stomach cancer are rare, when people use the term "stomach cancer" they generally are referring to adenocarcinoma.

Factors that increase your risk of stomach cancer include:

  • A diet high in salty and smoked foods
  • A diet low in fruits and vegetables
  • Eating foods contaminated with aflatoxin fungus
  • Family history of stomach cancer
  • Infection with Helicobacter pylori
  • Long-term stomach inflammation
  • Pernicious anemia
  • Smoking
  • Stomach polyps

It's not clear what causes stomach cancer, so there's no way to prevent it. But you can take steps to reduce your risk of stomach cancer by making small changes to your everyday life. For instance, try to:

  • Eat more fruits and vegetables. Try to incorporate more fruits and vegetables into your diet each day. Choose a wide variety of colorful fruits and vegetables.
  • Reduce the amount of salty and smoked foods you eat. Protect your stomach by limiting these foods.
  • Stop smoking. If you smoke, quit. If you don't smoke, don't start. Smoking increases your risk of stomach cancer, as well as many other types of cancer. Quitting smoking can be very difficult, so ask your doctor for help.
  • Ask your doctor about your risk of stomach cancer. Talk with your doctor if you have an increased risk of stomach cancer. Together you may consider periodic endoscopy to look for signs of stomach cancer.
© 1998-2015 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research (MFMER). All rights reserved. Terms of use