Generally, there are three types of thoracic outlet syndrome.
Neurogenic (neurological) thoracic outlet syndrome. This form of thoracic outlet syndrome is characterized by compression of the brachial plexus. The brachial plexus is a network of nerves that come from your spinal cord and control muscle movements and sensation in your shoulder, arm and hand.
In the majority of thoracic outlet syndrome cases, the symptoms are neurogenic.
- Vascular thoracic outlet syndrome. This type of thoracic outlet syndrome occurs when one or more of the veins (venous thoracic outlet syndrome) or arteries (arterial thoracic outlet syndrome) under the collarbone (clavicle) are compressed.
Nonspecific-type thoracic outlet syndrome. This type is also called disputed thoracic outlet syndrome. Some doctors don't believe it exists, while others say it's a common disorder.
People with nonspecific-type thoracic outlet syndrome have chronic pain in the area of the thoracic outlet that worsens with activity, but the specific cause of the pain can't be determined.
Thoracic outlet syndrome symptoms can vary, depending on which structures are compressed. When nerves are compressed, signs and symptoms of neurological thoracic outlet syndrome include:
- Wasting in the fleshy base of your thumb (Gilliatt-Sumner hand)
- Numbness or tingling in your arm or fingers
- Pain or aches in your neck, shoulder or hand
- Weakening grip
Signs and symptoms of vascular thoracic outlet syndrome can include:
- Discoloration of your hand (bluish color)
- Arm pain and swelling, possibly due to blood clots
- Blood clot in veins or arteries in the upper area of your body
- Lack of color (pallor) in one or more of your fingers or your entire hand
- Weak or no pulse in the affected arm
- Cold fingers, hands or arms
- Arm fatigue after activity
- Numbness or tingling in your fingers
- Weakness of arm or neck
- Throbbing lump near your collarbone
When to see a doctor
See your doctor if you consistently experience any of the signs and symptoms of thoracic outlet syndrome.