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All Diseases

Chronic kidney disease, also called chronic kidney failure, describes the gradual loss of kidney function. Your kidneys filter wastes and excess fluids from your blood, which are then excreted in your urine. When chronic kidney disease reaches an advanced stage, dangerous levels of fluid, electrolytes and wastes can build up in your body.

In the early stages of chronic kidney disease, you may have few signs or symptoms. Chronic kidney disease may not become apparent until your kidney function is significantly impaired.

Treatment for chronic kidney disease focuses on slowing the progression of the kidney damage, usually by controlling the underlying cause. Chronic kidney disease can progress to end-stage kidney failure, which is fatal without artificial filtering (dialysis) or a kidney transplant.

Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is a type of cancer of the blood and bone marrow - the spongy tissue inside bones where blood cells are made.

The term "chronic" in chronic lymphocytic leukemia comes from the fact that it typically progresses more slowly than other types of leukemia. The term "lymphocytic" in chronic lymphocytic leukemia comes from the cells affected by the disease — a group of white blood cells called lymphocytes, which help your body fight infection.

Chronic lymphocytic leukemia most commonly affects older adults. Chronic lymphocytic leukemia treatments can help control the disease.

Pelvic pain in women refers to pain in the lowest part of your abdomen and pelvis. If asked to locate your pain, you might sweep your hand over that entire area rather than point to a single spot. Chronic pelvic pain is pain in your pelvic region — the area below your bellybutton and between your hips — that lasts six months or longer.

Chronic pelvic pain can be a symptom of another disease, or it can be a condition in its own right. The cause of chronic pelvic pain is often hard to find. If the source of your chronic pelvic pain can be found, treatment focuses on that cause.

Some women never receive a specific diagnosis that explains their pain. But that doesn't mean your pain isn't real and treatable. If no cause can be found, treatment focuses on managing the pain.

Chronic sinusitis is a common condition in which the cavities around nasal passages (sinuses) become inflamed and swollen — for at least eight weeks, despite treatment attempts.

Also known as chronic rhinosinusitis, this condition interferes with drainage and causes mucus to build up. If you have chronic sinusitis, it may be difficult to breathe through your nose. The area around your eyes and face may feel swollen, and you may have throbbing facial pain or a headache.

Chronic sinusitis may be caused by an infection, but it can also be caused by growths in the sinuses (nasal polyps) or by a deviated nasal septum. Chronic sinusitis most commonly affects young and middle-aged adults, but it also can affect children.

Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) results from blows to the head over a period of time that cause concussion (mild traumatic brain injury). These injuries lead to difficulties with thinking (cognition), emotions and behaviors that do not become noticeable until many years later. CTE can lead to physical problems as well. Not everyone who has one or more concussions develops CTE.

CTE involves progressive damage to nerve cells (neurodegenerative disease). The damage results in visible changes to the brain. Some of these changes can be seen with brain imaging, but a diagnosis at this time can be made only on inspection after death (autopsy). Researchers are working to find a way to diagnose CTE in those who have the disease while the individuals are still alive.

Originally called punch drunk syndrome (dementia pugilistica), CTE was first demonstrated in boxers. Doctors now know that other individuals who play a wide variety of sports that involve repeated blows to the head, such as football players, can develop CTE. Military personnel who have had blast injuries also are at risk.

Researchers do not yet fully understand CTE's prevalence and causes. There is no cure for CTE.

Churg-Strauss syndrome — also known as eosinophilic granulomatosis (gran-u-loe-muh-TOE-sis) with polyangiitis (pol-e-an-jee-I-tis) — is a disorder marked by blood vessel inflammation. This inflammation can restrict blood flow to vital organs and tissues, sometimes permanently damaging them.

Asthma is the most common sign of Churg-Strauss syndrome, but Churg-Strauss syndrome can cause a variety of problems, ranging from hay fever, rash and gastrointestinal bleeding to severe pain and numbness in your hands and feet. The wide range of signs and symptoms and their similarity to those of other disorders makes Churg-Strauss syndrome challenging to diagnose.

Churg-Strauss syndrome is rare and has no cure. But, your doctor can usually help you control symptoms with steroids and other powerful immunosuppressant drugs.

Claudication is pain caused by too little blood flow, usually during exercise. Sometimes called intermittent claudication, this condition generally affects the blood vessels in the legs, but claudication can affect the arms, too.

At first, you'll probably notice the pain only when you're exercising, but as claudication worsens, the pain may affect you even when you're at rest.

Although it's sometimes considered a disease, claudication is technically a symptom of a disease. Most often, claudication is a symptom of peripheral artery disease, a potentially serious but treatable circulation problem in which the vessels that supply blood flow to your legs or arms are narrowed.

Fortunately, with treatment, you may be able to maintain an active lifestyle without pain.

Cleft lip and cleft palate are openings or splits in the upper lip, the roof of the mouth (palate) or both. Cleft lip and cleft palate result when developing facial structures in an unborn baby don't close completely.

Cleft lip and cleft palate are among the most common birth defects. Cleft lip and cleft palate most commonly occur as isolated birth defects but are also associated with many inherited genetic conditions or syndromes.

Having a baby born with a cleft can be upsetting, but cleft lip and cleft palate can be corrected. In most babies, a series of surgeries can restore normal function and achieve a more normal appearance with minimal scarring.

Clubfoot describes a range of foot abnormalities usually present at birth (congenital) in which your baby's foot is twisted out of shape or position. In clubfoot, the tissues connecting the muscles to the bone (tendons) are shorter than usual. The term "clubfoot" refers to the way the foot is positioned at a sharp angle to the ankle, like the head of a golf club. Clubfoot is a fairly common birth defect and is usually an isolated problem for an otherwise healthy newborn.

Clubfoot can be mild or severe. About half of children with clubfoot have it in both feet. If your child has clubfoot, it will make it hard for him or her to walk normally, so doctors generally recommend treating it soon after birth.

Doctors are usually able to treat clubfoot successfully, though sometimes children need follow-up surgery later on.