All Diseases

Microcephaly (my-kroh-SEF-uh-lee) is a rare neurological condition in which an infant's head is significantly smaller than the heads of other children of the same age and sex. Sometimes detected at birth, microcephaly usually is the result of the brain developing abnormally in the womb or not growing as it should after birth.

Microcephaly can be caused by a variety of genetic and environmental factors. Children with microcephaly often have developmental issues. Generally there's no treatment for microcephaly, but early intervention may help enhance your child's development and improve quality of life.

Microscopic colitis is an inflammation of the large intestine (colon) that causes persistent watery diarrhea. The disorder gets its name from the fact that it's necessary to examine colon tissue under a microscope to identify it.

There are two types of microscopic colitis:

  • Collagenous colitis, in which a thick layer of protein (collagen) develops in colon tissue
  • Lymphocytic colitis, in which white blood cells (lymphocytes) increase in colon tissue

It isn't known whether collagenous (kuh-LAYJ-uh-nus) colitis and lymphocytic colitis are two separate disorders or represent different phases of the same condition. However, symptoms of collagenous colitis and lymphocytic colitis are similar, as are testing and treatment.

The symptoms of microscopic colitis can come and go frequently. Sometimes the symptoms resolve on their own. If not, your doctor can suggest a number of effective medications.

A migraine headache can cause intense throbbing or a pulsing sensation in one area of the head and is commonly accompanied by nausea, vomiting, and extreme sensitivity to light and sound.

Migraine attacks can cause significant pain for hours to days and be so severe that all you can think about is finding a dark, quiet place to lie down.

Some migraines are preceded or accompanied by sensory warning symptoms (aura), such as flashes of light, blind spots, or tingling in your arm or leg.

Medications can help reduce the frequency and severity of migraines. If treatment hasn't worked for you in the past, talk to your doctor about trying a different migraine headache medication. The right medicines, combined with self-help remedies and lifestyle changes, may make a big difference.

Migraine with aura is a migraine that's preceded or accompanied by sensory warning signs or symptoms, such as flashes of light, blind spots, or tingling in your hand or face.

Migraine with aura is generally treated in the same way as migraine without aura. And the same medications and self-care measures that help to prevent a migraine can also be used to prevent migraine with aura.

Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is an intermediate stage between the expected cognitive decline of normal aging and the more serious decline of dementia. It can involve problems with memory, language, thinking and judgment that are greater than normal age-related changes. If you have mild cognitive impairment, you may be aware that your memory or mental function has "slipped." Your family and close friends also may notice a change. But generally these changes aren't severe enough to interfere with your day-to-day life and usual activities.

Mild cognitive impairment may increase your risk of later progressing to dementia, caused by Alzheimer's disease or other neurological conditions. But some people with mild cognitive impairment never get worse, and a few eventually get better.

Milia are tiny white bumps that most commonly appear across a baby's nose, chin or cheeks. Although milia can develop at any age, these tiny white bumps are common among newborns. In fact, up to half of all babies develop milia. You can't prevent milia, but the good news is that milia usually disappear on their own in a few weeks. The best treatment for milia is usually none at all.

Milk allergy, one of the most common food allergies in children, is an abnormal response by the body's immune system to milk and products containing milk. Cow's milk is the usual cause, but milk from sheep, goats, buffalo and other mammals also can cause a reaction.

An allergic reaction usually occurs minutes to hours after consuming milk. Signs and symptoms of milk allergy range from mild to severe and can include wheezing, vomiting, hives and digestive problems. Sometimes, milk allergy can cause anaphylaxis — a severe, life-threatening reaction.

Avoidance is the primary treatment for milk allergy. Fortunately, most children outgrow a milk allergy. Those who don't outgrow it may need to continue to avoid milk products.

Miscarriage is the spontaneous loss of a pregnancy before the 20th week. About 10 to 20 percent of known pregnancies end in miscarriage. But the actual number is probably much higher because many miscarriages occur so early in pregnancy that a woman doesn't even know she's pregnant.

Miscarriage is a somewhat loaded term — possibly suggesting that something was amiss in the carrying of the pregnancy. This is rarely true. Most miscarriages occur because the fetus isn't developing normally. However, because these abnormalities are rarely understood, it's often difficult to determine what causes them.

Miscarriage is a relatively common experience — but that doesn't make it any easier. Take a step toward emotional healing by understanding what can cause a miscarriage, what increases the risk and what medical care might be needed.

Mitral valve prolapse (MVP) occurs when the valve between your heart's left upper chamber (left atrium) and the left lower chamber (left ventricle) doesn't close properly.

During mitral valve prolapse, the leaflets of the mitral valve bulge (prolapse) upward or back into the left atrium as the heart contracts.

Mitral (MY-trul) valve prolapse sometimes leads to blood leaking backward into the left atrium, a condition called mitral valve regurgitation.

In most people, mitral valve prolapse isn't life-threatening and doesn't require treatment or changes in lifestyle. Some people with mitral valve prolapse, however, require treatment.

Mitral valve regurgitation — or mitral regurgitation — is when your heart's mitral valve doesn't close tightly, allowing blood to flow backward in your heart. As a result, blood can't move through your heart or to the rest of your body as efficiently, making you feel tired or out of breath.

Treatment of mitral valve regurgitation — also called mitral insufficiency or mitral incompetence — depends on how severe your condition is, whether it's getting worse and whether you have symptoms. For mild cases, treatment may not be necessary.

You may need heart surgery to repair or replace the valve for severe cases. Left untreated, severe mitral valve regurgitation can cause heart failure or heart rhythm problems (arrhythmias).