All Medical Procedures

Face transplant is a treatment option for some people with severe facial disfigurement. A face transplant replaces all or part of a person's face with donor tissue from someone who has died.

Face transplant is a complex operation that takes months of planning and multiple surgical teams. The procedure is performed in only a few transplant centers worldwide. Each face transplant candidate is carefully evaluated to help ensure the best possible results in appearance and function.

A face transplant may enhance your life, but it is a high-risk procedure. You and your transplant team can't predict exactly how you will look and how your immune system will respond to the new face. You will need to take special medications (immunosuppressants) for the rest of your life to reduce the risk of your body rejecting the transplanted face.

A face-lift (rhytidectomy) is a cosmetic surgical procedure to improve the look of your face and neck.

During a face-lift, facial soft tissues are lifted, excess skin is removed and skin is draped back over the newly repositioned contours. A neck lift (platysmaplasty) is often done as part of a face-lift.

You might choose to have a face-lift if your facial skin is beginning to droop — a common occurrence with aging. A face-lift might also boost your self-confidence.

A face-lift, however, won't affect the quality of your facial skin. If you have wrinkles or sun damage, you might also consider a skin-resurfacing procedure. A face-lift can be done in combination with some other cosmetic procedures, such as a brow lift or eyelid surgery.

Family therapy is a type of psychological counseling (psychotherapy) that helps family members improve communication and resolve conflicts.

Family therapy is often short term. It may include all family members or just those able or willing to participate. Your specific treatment plan will depend on your family's situation. Family therapy sessions can teach you skills to deepen family connections and get through stressful times, even after you're done going to therapy sessions.

The fecal occult blood test (FOBT) is a lab test used to check stool samples for hidden (occult) blood.

Occult blood in the stool may indicate colon cancer or polyps in the colon or rectum — though not all cancers or polyps bleed.

Typically, occult blood is passed in such small amounts that it can be detected only through the chemicals used in a fecal occult blood test.

If blood is detected through a fecal occult blood test, additional tests may be needed to determine the source of the bleeding. The fecal occult blood test can only detect the presence or absence of blood — it doesn't indicate potential sources of bleeding.

The female condom is a birth control (contraceptive) device that acts as a barrier to keep sperm from entering the uterus. It protects against pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The female condom is a soft, loosefitting pouch with a ring on each end.

One ring is inserted into the vagina to hold the female condom in place. The ring at the open end of the condom remains outside the vagina. The outer ring helps keep the condom in place and is also used for removal.

Only two female condoms — the FC1 female condom and its replacement, the FC2 female condom — have Food and Drug Administration approval in the U.S. The FC1 female condom, which is made of plastic (polyurethane), is no longer being produced. The FC2 female condom is made of synthetic latex and is pre-lubricated with a silicone-based lubricant.

A ferritin test measures the amount of ferritin in your blood. Ferritin is a blood cell protein that contains iron. A ferritin test helps your doctor understand how much iron your body is storing.

If a ferritin test reveals that your blood ferritin level is lower than normal, it indicates your body's iron stores are low and you have iron deficiency.

If a ferritin test shows higher than normal levels, it could indicate that you have a condition that causes your body to store too much iron. It could also point to liver disease, rheumatoid arthritis, other inflammatory conditions or hyperthyroidism. Some types of cancer also may cause your blood ferritin level to be high.

Fetal fibronectin is a protein that acts as a "glue" during pregnancy, attaching the amniotic sac — the fluid-filled membrane that cushions your baby in the uterus — to the lining of the uterus.

Fetal fibronectin is often present in vaginal discharge before week 22 of pregnancy. Fetal fibronectin also begins to break down and can be detected in vaginal discharge toward the end of pregnancy.

If your health care provider is concerned about preterm labor, he or she might test a swab of secretions near your cervix for the presence of fetal fibronectin between week 22 and week 34 of pregnancy. A positive fetal fibronectin test is a clue that the "glue" has been disturbed and you're at increased risk of preterm labor.

A fetal ultrasound, or sonogram, is an imaging technique that uses high-frequency sound waves to produce images of a baby in the uterus.

Fetal ultrasound images can help your health care provider evaluate your baby's growth and development and determine how your pregnancy is progressing. A fetal ultrasound might also give you the chance to study your baby's profile months before delivery. In some cases, fetal ultrasound is used to evaluate possible problems or confirm a diagnosis.

Fetal ultrasound is often done during the first trimester to confirm and date the pregnancy and again during the second trimester — between 18 and 20 weeks — when anatomic details are visible. If your baby's health needs to be monitored more closely, ultrasounds might be repeated throughout the pregnancy.

First trimester screening is a prenatal test that offers early information about a baby's risk of certain chromosomal conditions — Down syndrome (trisomy 21) and Edwards syndrome (trisomy 18).

First trimester screening has two steps:

  • A blood test to measure levels of two pregnancy-specific substances in the mother's blood — pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A and human chorionic gonadotropin
  • An ultrasound exam to measure the size of the clear space in the tissue at the back of the baby's neck (nuchal translucency)

Typically, first trimester screening is done between weeks 11 and 14 of pregnancy — although a form of the screening can be done as early as nine weeks.

Using your age and the results of the blood test and the ultrasound, your health care provider can gauge your risk of carrying a baby who has Down syndrome or Edwards syndrome.

If your risk level is low, first trimester screening can offer reassurance of a healthy pregnancy.

If your risk level is moderate or high, you might choose to follow first trimester screening with another test that's more definitive.

A flexible sigmoidoscopy (sig moi-DOS-kuh-pee) is an exam used to evaluate the lower part of the large intestine (colon). During a flexible sigmoidoscopy exam, a thin, flexible tube (sigmoidoscope) is inserted into the rectum.

A tiny video camera at the tip of the tube allows the doctor to view the inside of the rectum and most of the sigmoid colon — about the last two feet (61 centimeters) of the large intestine. If necessary, tissue samples (biopsies) can be taken through the scope during a flexible sigmoidoscopy exam.

Flexible sigmoidoscopy doesn't allow the doctor to see the entire colon. As a result, any cancers or polyps farther into the colon can't be detected with flexible sigmoidoscopy alone.