All Medical Procedures

A tubal ligation reversal is a procedure to restore fertility after a woman has had a tubal ligation — a procedure that cuts or blocks the fallopian tubes to prevent pregnancy. During a tubal ligation reversal, the blocked segments of the fallopian tubes are reconnected to the remainder of the fallopian tubes. This may allow eggs to again move through the tubes and sperm to travel up the fallopian tubes to join an egg.

Sterilization procedures that cause the least amount of damage to the fallopian tubes are the most likely to allow successful tubal ligation reversal. Examples include sterilization with tubal clips or rings.

Procedures that cause scarring to seal off the fallopian tubes, such as the Essure or Adiana systems, generally aren't reversible. In cases where tubal ligation reversal isn't recommended, in vitro fertilization (IVF) may be an option. IVF involves retrieving eggs from the ovary, fertilizing them in a lab and implanting them in the uterus.

A tummy tuck — also known as abdominoplasty — is a cosmetic surgical procedure to improve the appearance of the abdomen.

During a tummy tuck, excess skin and fat are removed from the abdomen. In most cases, the connective tissues in the abdomen are tightened with sutures as well. The remaining skin is then repositioned to create a more toned look.

You might choose to have a tummy tuck if you have skin that's accumulated around the area of your bellybutton and a weak lower abdominal wall. A tummy tuck can also boost your body image.

Diagnostic ultrasound, also called sonography or diagnostic medical sonography, is an imaging method that uses high-frequency sound waves to produce images of structures within your body. The images can provide valuable information for diagnosing and treating a variety of diseases and conditions.

Most ultrasound examinations are done using a sonar device outside your body, though some ultrasound examinations involve placing a device inside your body.

An upper endoscopy is a procedure used to visually examine your upper digestive system with a tiny camera on the end of a long, flexible tube. A specialist in diseases of the digestive system (gastroenterologist) uses endoscopy to diagnose and, sometimes, treat conditions that affect the esophagus, stomach and beginning of the small intestine (duodenum).

The medical term for an upper endoscopy is esophagogastroduodenoscopy. An upper endoscopy may be done in your doctor's office, an outpatient surgery center or a hospital.

Urinalysis is a test that evaluates a sample of your urine. Urinalysis is used to detect and assess a wide range of disorders, such as urinary tract infection, kidney disease and diabetes.

Urinalysis involves examining the appearance, concentration and content of urine. Abnormal urinalysis results may point to a disease or illness. For example, a urinary tract infection can make urine look cloudy instead of clear. Increased levels of protein in urine can be a sign of kidney disease.

Abnormal results of a urinalysis often require more testing and evaluation to uncover the source of the problem.

Urine cytology is a test to look for abnormal cells in your urine. Urine cytology is used along with other tests and procedures to diagnose urinary tract cancers.

Urine cytology is most often used to diagnose bladder cancer, though it may also detect cancers of the kidney, prostate, ureter and urethra.

Your doctor may recommend a urine cytology test if blood has been detected in your urine (hematuria).

Urine cytology may also be used in people who have already been diagnosed with bladder cancer and have undergone treatment. In these cases, a urine cytology test may help detect a bladder cancer recurrence.

Uterine artery embolization is a minimally invasive treatment for uterine fibroids, noncancerous growths in the uterus. In uterine artery embolization — also called uterine fibroid embolization — a doctor uses a slender, flexible tube (catheter) to inject small particles (embolic agents) into the uterine arteries, which supply blood to your fibroids and uterus.

Uterine fibroids stimulate formation of new blood vessels to the fibroid. During uterine artery embolization, the embolic agents are injected into these fibroid blood vessels. The goal is to block the fibroid vessels, starving the fibroids and causing them to shrink and die.

A vacuum extraction is a procedure sometimes done during the course of vaginal childbirth.

During vacuum extraction, a health care provider applies the vacuum — a soft or rigid cup with a handle and a vacuum pump — to the baby's head to help guide the baby out of the birth canal. This is typically done during a contraction while the mother pushes.

Your health care provider might recommend vacuum extraction during the second stage of labor — when you're pushing — if labor isn't progressing or if the baby's health depends on an immediate delivery.

Vacuum extraction poses a risk of injury for both mother and baby. If vacuum extraction fails, a cesarean delivery (C-section) might be needed.

If you've delivered a baby by C-section, you might have a choice with your next pregnancy — schedule a repeat C-section or attempt vaginal birth after cesarean (VBAC).

Years ago, a C-section ended any hope of future vaginal deliveries. But today, thanks largely to changes in surgical technique, VBAC is possible in many cases. In fact, an estimated 75 percent of women who try VBAC have a successful vaginal delivery.

VBAC isn't right for everyone, though. Sometimes a pregnancy complication or underlying condition prevents the possibility of a successful VBAC. Many local hospitals don't offer VBAC because they don't have the staff or resources to handle emergency C-sections.

Vaginal hysterectomy is a surgical procedure to remove the uterus through the vagina. During a vaginal hysterectomy, the surgeon detaches the uterus from the ovaries, fallopian tubes and upper vagina, as well as from the blood vessels and connective tissue that support it. The uterus is then removed through the vagina.

Vaginal hysterectomy involves a shorter time in the hospital, lower cost and faster recovery than an abdominal hysterectomy, which requires an incision in your lower abdomen. However, if your uterus is enlarged, vaginal hysterectomy may not be possible.

Hysterectomy often includes removal of the cervix as well as the uterus. When the surgeon also removes one or both ovaries and fallopian tubes, it's called a total hysterectomy with salpingo-oophorectomy (sal-ping-go-o-of-uh-REK-tuh-me). Located in your pelvis, all these organs are part of your reproductive system.