All Medical Procedures

Capsule endoscopy is a procedure that uses a tiny wireless camera to take pictures of your digestive tract. The camera sits inside a vitamin-sized capsule that you swallow. As the capsule travels through your digestive tract, the camera takes thousands of pictures that are transmitted to a recorder you wear on a belt around your waist or over your shoulder.

Capsule endoscopy helps doctors see inside your small intestine — an area that isn't easily reached with conventional endoscopy. Capsule endoscopy can be used by adults and by children who can swallow the capsule. The procedure is usually started in a doctor's office.

Colonoscopy is an imaging test performed to diagnose any abnormalities or changes in the rectum or the colon (large intestine). It is a minimally invasive procedure. Colonoscopy is done with the help of a colonoscope, which is a flexible, long tube with a tiny video camera placed at the tip of the colonoscope. The colonoscope is inserted into the patient's rectum and the doctor is able to see the in the colon and rectum very clearly. The colonoscope is very flexible in nature and can go through the entire length of the colon. It is a safe procedure that helps in diagnosing various problems at an early stage. It is possible to remove polyps or some other abnormal tissues easily with the colonoscope during the procedure, if needed. Colonoscopy is sometimes combined with biopsies, which are helpful for the doctor to take a biopsy tissue sample from the rectum or colon for further detailed analysis.

Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) is an imaging test that is performed to diagnose gastrointestinal (digestive) and lung disorders. It is a minimally invasive procedure. Endoscopic ultrasound uses the sound waves of high frequency to produce images of the patient’s lining of the gastrointestinal tract and chest, along with some surrounding organs such as liver, pancreas and lymph nodes. Endoscopic ultrasound is sometimes combined with FNAC (Fine needle aspiration cytology), and helps the doctor to take a biopsy tissue sample from the chest or abdomen for further detailed analysis. This combined procedure of Endoscopic ultrasound and biopsy is also a minimally invasive procedure and is not an exploratory surgery. The endoscopic ultrasound procedure is an effective technique and is helpful in some other treatments like drainage of a pseudocyst. Endoscopic ultrasound procedure consists of a small ultrasound device installed at the head or tip of an endoscope (a small tube-like structure, flexible in nature with a light fitted in it). Endoscopic ultrasound is a safe procedure that helps in diagnosing various problems at an early stage.

Esophageal manometry (muh-NOM-uh-tree) is a test that gauges how well your esophagus works. Your esophagus is the long, muscular tube that connects your throat to your stomach. Esophageal manometry measures the rhythmic muscle contractions (peristalsis) that occur in your esophagus when you swallow. Esophageal manometry also measures the coordination and force exerted by the muscles of your esophagus.

During esophageal manometry, a thin, flexible tube (catheter) that contains sensors is passed through your nose, down your esophagus and into your stomach. Esophageal manometry can be helpful in diagnosing some mostly uncommon disorders that affect your esophagus.

A flexible sigmoidoscopy (sig moi-DOS-kuh-pee) is an exam used to evaluate the lower part of the large intestine (colon). During a flexible sigmoidoscopy exam, a thin, flexible tube (sigmoidoscope) is inserted into the rectum.

A tiny video camera at the tip of the tube allows the doctor to view the inside of the rectum and most of the sigmoid colon — about the last two feet (61 centimeters) of the large intestine. If necessary, tissue samples (biopsies) can be taken through the scope during a flexible sigmoidoscopy exam.

Flexible sigmoidoscopy doesn't allow the doctor to see the entire colon. As a result, any cancers or polyps farther into the colon can't be detected with flexible sigmoidoscopy alone.

A liver transplant is a surgical procedure to remove a diseased liver and replace it with a healthy liver from a donor. Most liver transplant operations use livers from deceased donors, though a liver may also come from a living donor.

The number of people waiting for new livers is much larger than the number of available livers, so liver transplant is reserved for people who are critically ill. Some people receive a liver transplant right away, while others spend many months waiting for a liver transplant.

Splenectomy is a surgery performed to remove the affected or damaged spleen. The spleen is the organ that lies beneath the rib cage attached to the left side of the abdomen. The spleen is an important organ as it eliminates the dead, damaged or old blood cells from the body. It also helps in fighting against foreign bodies (infections) and filtering unwanted substances from the body. Although most of the blood products are produced by the bone marrow, the spleen also produces a certain type of blood cells and white blood cells. The main reason for Splenectomy surgery is an abdominal injury and it is performed in order to treat the ruptured spleen. Splenectomy is also helpful in treating various other conditions like splenomegaly (enlarged spleen), some cancers, certain blood disorders, and benign tumors or cysts. These days the surgical procedure of splenectomy is often performed by a minimally invasive technique known as laparoscopic splenectomy. This involves a tiny camera and special surgical instruments.

Virtual colonoscopy is a minimally invasive exam to screen for cancer of the large intestine (colon). Virtual colonoscopy requires the same pre-test bowel preparation as colonoscopy. But virtual colonoscopy doesn’t require sedation or inserting a scope into the colon.

During virtual colonoscopy, a CT scan produces hundreds of cross-sectional images of your abdominal organs. The images are combined and digitally manipulated to provide a detailed view of the inside of the colon and rectum.

Virtual colonoscopy is an alternative to colonoscopy, but the new test doesn't mean you'll never have another colonoscopy. If virtual colonoscopy shows abnormalities in your colon, your doctor will typically recommend colonoscopy to learn more.


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