All Medical Procedures

Abdominal hysterectomy is a surgical procedure that removes your uterus through an incision in your lower abdomen. Your uterus — or womb — is where a baby grows if you're pregnant. A partial hysterectomy removes just the uterus, and a total hysterectomy removes the uterus and the cervix.

Sometimes a hysterectomy includes removal of one or both ovaries and fallopian tubes, a procedure called total hysterectomy with salpingo-oophorectomy (sal-ping-go-o-of-uh-REK-tuh-me).

Hysterectomy can also be performed through an incision in the vagina (vaginal hysterectomy) or by a laparoscopic or robotic surgical approach — which uses long, thin instruments passed through small abdominal incisions. Abdominal hysterectomy may be recommended over other types of hysterectomy if you have a large uterus or if your doctor wants to check other pelvic organs for signs of disease.

Amniocentesis is a prenatal test done during the 15-16th week of the pregnancy. Amniocentesis is a procedure where a small sample (less than one ounce) is taken from the amniotic fluid for testing. Amniotic fluid is present around the fetus and acts as a cushion protecting the fetus during the pregnancy. The volume of the fluid taken depends on the baby’s gestational age. The fluid looks like water and consists of various free-floating live fetal cells, tissues, urine along with other chemicals such as Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) released by the fetus. The sample is sent to the laboratory for further detailed analysis. These substances help in understanding the health of the fetus before birth.

The amniotic fluid is extracted through a fine and long needle from the uterus through the abdomen. The procedure is guided by an ultrasound. Amniocentesis is helpful in detecting any birth defects, condition of the lungs, infections or other complications in the fetus.

The basal body temperature method - a fertility awareness-based method - is a type of natural family planning. Your basal body temperature is your temperature when you're fully at rest. Ovulation may cause a slight increase in basal body temperature.

You'll be most fertile during the two to three days before your temperature rises. By tracking your basal body temperature each day, you may be able to predict when you'll ovulate. In turn, this may help you determine when you're most likely to conceive.

If you're hoping to get pregnant, you can use the basal body temperature method to determine the best days to have sex. Similarly, if you're hoping to avoid pregnancy, you can use the basal body temperature method to help determine which days to avoid unprotected sex. Because the basal body temperature method alone doesn't provide enough warning time to effectively prevent pregnancy, it's generally used in combination with other fertility awareness-based methods if you're hoping to avoid pregnancy.

Biophysical profile (BPP) test is a prenatal test performed to monitor the health of the fetus. This test is a combination of fetal ultrasound and a nonstress test i.e. heart rate monitoring of the fetus. The test is performed to measure the certain attributes in an unborn child including:

  • Normal breathing of the fetus i.e. continuous rhythmic breathing cycles.
  • Normal heart rate and increased heart rate while any movements.
  • Muscle tone e.g. flexing and extension of limbs, closing and opening of mouth and hands or rotation of the baby’s trunk, etc.
  • Movements of the fetus
  • The amniotic fluid which protects the fetus

Both the fetus ultrasound and nonstress test are allocated scores, based on whether the test criteria has been met or not. If the score is low on a Biophysical profile, the doctor may advise going for some more tests to get a confirmed diagnosis. The biophysical test is usually performed in the last trimester of pregnancy or after the 32nd week of pregnancy. This test is a very safe and noninvasive and doesn’t have any side effects. There is no risk involved in the biophysical test either to the expectant mother or to the fetus.

A breast biopsy is a procedure to remove a small sample of breast tissue for laboratory testing. Breast biopsy is a way to evaluate a suspicious area in your breast to determine if it is breast cancer. There are several types of breast biopsy procedures.

A breast biopsy provides a sample of tissue that doctors use to identify and diagnose abnormalities in the cells that make up breast lumps or other unusual breast changes. And the lab report from the breast biopsy can help determine whether you need additional surgery or other treatment.

A breast self-exam for breast awareness is an inspection of your breasts that you do on your own. To help increase your breast awareness, you use your eyes and hands to observe the look and feel of your breasts.

If you notice new breast changes, discuss these with your doctor. Though most breast changes detected during a breast self-exam have benign causes, some changes may signal something serious, such as breast cancer.

Most medical organizations don't recommend routine breast self-exams as a part of breast cancer screening. That's because breast self-exams haven't been shown to be effective in detecting cancer or improving survival for women who have breast cancer.

Still, doctors believe there is value in women being familiar with their own breasts, so they understand what's normal and promptly report changes.

Cesarean delivery — also known as a C-section — is a surgical procedure used to deliver a baby through an incision in the mother's abdomen and a second incision in the mother's uterus.

A C-section might be planned ahead of time if you develop pregnancy complications or you've had a previous C-section and aren't considering vaginal birth after cesarean (VBAC). Often, however, the need for a first-time C-section doesn't become obvious until labor is under way.

If you're pregnant, knowing what to expect during a C-section — both during the procedure and afterward — can help you prepare.

The cervical cap is a birth control (contraceptive) device that prevents sperm from entering the uterus. The cervical cap is a reusable, deep silicone cup that is inserted into the vagina and fits tightly over the cervix. The cervical cap is held in place by suction and has a strap to help with removal.

The cervical cap is effective at preventing pregnancy only when used with spermicide. Only one cervical cap — FemCap — has Food and Drug Administration approval in the U.S. It must be fitted and prescribed by a health care provider.

Cervical cerclage is a procedure in which sutures are used to close the cervix — the lower part of the uterus that opens to the vagina — during pregnancy to help prevent premature birth.

Cervical cerclage can be done through the vagina (transvaginal cervical cerclage) or through the abdomen (transabdominal cervical cerclage). Typically, the sutures are removed when a baby is considered full term — during week 37 of pregnancy. If necessary, the sutures can be removed earlier.

Your health care provider might recommend cervical cerclage if your cervix is at risk of opening before your baby is ready to be born or, in some cases, if your cervix begins to open too early. However, cervical cerclage isn't appropriate for everyone. It can cause serious side effects and doesn't always prevent premature birth. Understand the risks of cervical cerclage and whether the procedure might benefit you and your baby.

The cervical mucus method, also called the ovulation method and the Billings ovulation method, is a type of natural family planning also known as fertility awareness-based methods.

The cervical mucus method is based on careful observation of mucus patterns during the course of your menstrual cycle. Before ovulation, cervical secretions change — creating an environment that helps sperm travel through the cervix, uterus and fallopian tubes to the egg. By recognizing the changing characteristics of your cervical mucus, you can predict when you'll ovulate. In turn, this may help you determine when you're most likely to conceive.

If you're hoping to get pregnant, you can use the cervical mucus method to determine the best days to have sex. Similarly, if you're hoping to avoid pregnancy, you can use the cervical mucus method to determine which days to avoid unprotected sex.

Using the cervical mucus method for birth control requires motivation and diligence. If you don't want to conceive, you and your partner must avoid having sex or use a barrier method of contraception during your fertile days each month.

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