All Medical Procedures

A breast biopsy is a procedure to remove a small sample of breast tissue for laboratory testing. Breast biopsy is a way to evaluate a suspicious area in your breast to determine if it is breast cancer. There are several types of breast biopsy procedures.

A breast biopsy provides a sample of tissue that doctors use to identify and diagnose abnormalities in the cells that make up breast lumps or other unusual breast changes. And the lab report from the breast biopsy can help determine whether you need additional surgery or other treatment.

Colectomy is a surgical procedure to remove a part or all of the colon. The colon is known as the large intestine. It is a large, hollow tube-like organ, present at the end of the digestive tract. Colectomy is advised in order to treat and prevent any conditions or diseases affecting the large intestine or colon.

The different types of colectomy surgeries are as mentioned:

  • Total colectomy – It is a form of colectomy which involves the removal of the entire colon from the patient’s body.
  • Partial colectomy – This type of colectomy procedure involves the removal of only an affected portion of the colon. This is also known as a subtotal colectomy.
  • Hemicolectomy – This type of surgical procedure of colectomy involves the removal of either right or left part of the colon.
  • Proctocolectomy - This form of colectomy involves the removal of both of the affected rectum and the colon of the patient.

After the surgical procedure of colectomy, the remaining parts of the digestive tract are attached together to eliminate waste from the body. This further involves another surgical procedure.

Gastrointestinal endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) is a procedure to remove cancerous or other abnormal tissues (lesions) from the digestive tract.

Endoscopic mucosal resection is performed with a long, narrow tube equipped with a light, video camera and other instruments. During EMR of the upper digestive tract, the tube (endoscope) is passed down your throat to reach an abnormality in your esophagus, stomach or upper part of the small intestine (duodenum).

To remove lesions from the colon, the tube is guided up through the anus.

Primarily a treatment procedure, EMR is also used to collect tissues for diagnosis. If cancer is present, EMR can help determine if the cancer has invaded tissues beneath the digestive tract lining.

Gamma Knife radiosurgery is a type of radiation therapy used to treat tumors and other abnormalities in the brain.

In Gamma Knife radiosurgery, specialized equipment focuses close to 200 tiny beams of radiation on a tumor or other target. Although each beam has very little effect on the brain tissue it passes through, a strong dose of radiation is delivered to the site where all the beams meet.

The precision of Gamma Knife radiosurgery results in minimal damage to healthy tissues surrounding the target. In some cases, Gamma Knife radiosurgery may have a lower risk of side effects compared with other types of radiation therapy. Also, Gamma Knife radiosurgery is often a safer option than is traditional brain surgery.

Gamma Knife radiosurgery is usually a one-time therapy completed in a single day.

A liver biopsy is a procedure to remove a small piece of liver tissue, so it can be examined under a microscope for signs of damage or disease. Your doctor may recommend a liver biopsy if blood tests or imaging studies suggest you might have a liver problem. A liver biopsy is also used to determine the severity of liver disease. This information helps guide treatment decisions.

The most common type of liver biopsy is called percutaneous liver biopsy. It involves inserting a thin needle through your abdomen into the liver and removing a small piece of tissue. Two other types of liver biopsy — one using a vein in the neck (transjugular) and the other using a small abdominal incision (laparoscopic) — also remove liver tissue with a needle.

Lumpectomy is a surgical procedure done to remove cancer cells and other affected tissues from the breast. Lumpectomy is also known as breast-conserving surgery, wide local excision or partial mastectomy. In this surgery, only a small portion of the affected breast is removed. Sometimes, doctors may advise lumpectomy as an excisional biopsy procedure. In this surgery, while the doctors remove the affected lump, they also take some part of the surrounding normal or healthy tissue just to ensure that all the affected cells are removed. Lumpectomy is a very useful and effective surgical procedure as it assists in detecting cancer cells at an early stage. It is usually the first choice of treatment in many breast cancer cases. If the cancer cells are further detected after lumpectomy, the procedure of lumpectomy is followed by radiation therapy, in order to prevent the recurrence of the cancer cells. The lumpectomy is usually performed on a solid mass of breast, to detect its malignancy.

Mastectomy is a surgical procedure performed to treat breast cancer by removing all the breast tissues from the breast. If the cancer cells have spread to a large area in the breast, then mastectomy is done. However, if the cancer cells have affected a small portion in the breast, then another surgical procedure known as lumpectomy is performed. Lumpectomy is known as breast-conserving surgery, wide local excision or partial mastectomy. In this surgery, only a small portion of the affected breast is removed. Both the surgical procedures are effective in preventing the return of cancer cells (recurrence). However, lumpectomy cannot be preferred in all cases as it is useful in cases where the cancer cells have not spread to a large area in the breast. Mastectomy is a surgical procedure to remove the breast entirely, however, with the new technologies in mastectomy, breast skin can be preserved, thereby conserving the aesthetics or appearance of the breast. This new technique is known as a skin-sparing mastectomy. There is another technique known as breast reconstruction, which is done either along with or after the mastectomy surgery. The breast reconstruction is used to restore the breast shape, which helps in conserving the appearance of the breast.

Mohs surgery is a precise surgical technique used to treat skin cancer. During Mohs surgery, layers of cancer-containing skin are progressively removed and examined until only cancer-free tissue remains. Mohs surgery is also known as Mohs micrographic surgery.

The goal of Mohs surgery is to remove as much of the skin cancer as possible, while doing minimal damage to surrounding healthy tissue. Mohs surgery is usually done on an outpatient basis using a local anesthetic.

Mohs surgery is an improvement to standard surgery (local excision), which involves removing the visible cancer and a small margin of healthy tissue all at once. Mohs surgery allows surgeons to verify that all cancer cells have been removed at the time of surgery. This increases the chance of a cure and reduces the need for additional treatments or additional surgery.

Sentinel node biopsy is a procedure in which a small tissue sample is taken to test if the cancer has spread into the lymphatic system or lymph nodes. Lymph nodes are oval-shaped small organs, considered to be a part of the immune system, and present in various parts of the body. They are usually present near the internal organs like lungs, intestines, and stomach, and in areas like neck, armpits, and groin. Sentinel node biopsy is performed to detect melanoma and breast cancer. Sentinel nodes are the primary lymph nodes in which the drainage of the tumor is commonly observed. Usually, a tracer material is injected during the surgery, which helps the surgeon to locate the sentinel lymph nodes clearly. After the sentinel lymph nodes are removed from the body, they are further sent to the lab for detailed analysis. If the sentinel lymph nodes do not contain cancer cells, then the removal of additional lymph nodes is not required. However, if the cancer is present in the sentinel lymph nodes, then the additional lymph nodes are required to be removed for the doctor to examine the cancer spread.

Skin biopsy is a diagnostic procedure which involves taking a small tissue sample from the skin and examining it carefully under a microscope to evaluate various skin problems and medical condition of the person. The doctor advises a skin biopsy in order to check for certain skin diseases and conditions. There are various types of skin biopsies which are as mentioned:

  • Shave biopsy – In this procedure, the doctor uses a razor-like tool, which helps in removing a small portion of the upper layer of the skin i.e. epidermis and some part of dermis.
  • Punch biopsy – In this procedure, the doctor uses a circular shaped tool, that helps in removing tissues from deeper skin layer i.e. epidermis, dermis, and superficial fat layers.
  • Excisional biopsy – In this procedure, the doctor uses a scalpel (a small knife) to remove the affected skin or lump completely along with a small part of the surrounding normal tissue down through or to the fatty skin layer.

The type of skin biopsy advised, depends upon the size and the location of the affected area known as a skin lesion.


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