Cystitis signs and symptoms often include:
- A strong, persistent urge to urinate
- A burning sensation when urinating
- Passing frequent, small amounts of urine
- Blood in the urine (hematuria)
- Passing cloudy or strong-smelling urine
- Discomfort in the pelvic area
- A feeling of pressure in the lower abdomen
- Low-grade fever
In young children, new episodes of accidental daytime wetting also may be a sign of a urinary tract infection (UTI). Nighttime bed-wetting on its own isn't likely to be associated with a UTI.
When to see a doctor
Call your doctor immediately if you have signs and symptoms common to a kidney infection, including:
- Back or side pain
- Fever and chills
- Nausea and vomiting
If you develop urgent, frequent or painful urination that lasts for several hours or longer or if you notice blood in your urine, call your doctor. If you've been diagnosed with a UTI in the past and you develop symptoms that mimic a previous UTI, call your doctor.
Also call your doctor if cystitis symptoms return after you've finished a course of antibiotics. You may need a different type of medication.
If your child starts having daytime wetting accidents, call your pediatrician.
In otherwise healthy men, cystitis is rare and should be investigated by your doctor.
Your urinary system includes your kidneys, ureters, bladder and urethra. All play a role in removing waste from your body. Your kidneys — a pair of bean-shaped organs located toward the back of your upper abdomen — filter waste from your blood and regulate the concentrations of many substances. Tubes called ureters carry urine from your kidneys to the bladder, where it's stored until it exits your body through the urethra.
UTIs typically occur when bacteria outside the body enter the urinary tract through the urethra and begin to multiply. Most cases of cystitis are caused by a type of Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteria.
Bacterial bladder infections may occur in women as a result of sexual intercourse. But even sexually inactive girls and women are susceptible to lower urinary tract infections because the female genital area often harbors bacteria that can cause cystitis.
Main types of infections
The two main types of bacterial bladder infections are:
- Community-acquired bladder infections. These infections occur when people who aren't in a medical care facility develop a bladder infection. Bladder infections are more common in women than in men.
- Hospital-acquired bladder infections. These infections, also called nosocomial (nos-o-KO-me-ul) infections, occur in people in a medical care facility, such as a hospital or nursing home. Most often they happen in those who have had a urinary catheter placed through the urethra and into the bladder to collect urine, a common practice before some surgical procedures, for some diagnostic tests, or as a means of urinary drainage for older adults or people confined to bed.
Although bacterial infections are the most common cause of cystitis, a number of noninfectious factors also may cause the bladder to become inflamed. Some examples:
- Interstitial cystitis. The cause of this chronic bladder inflammation, also called painful bladder syndrome, is unclear. Most cases are diagnosed in women. The condition can be difficult to diagnose and treat.
- Drug-induced cystitis. Certain medications, particularly the chemotherapy drugs cyclophosphamide and ifosfamide, can cause inflammation of your bladder as the broken-down components of the drugs exit your body.
- Radiation cystitis. Radiation treatment of the pelvic area can cause inflammatory changes in bladder tissue.
- Foreign-body cystitis. Long-term use of a catheter can predispose you to bacterial infections and to tissue damage, both of which can cause inflammation.
- Chemical cystitis. Some people may be hypersensitive to chemicals contained in certain products, such as bubble bath, feminine hygiene sprays or spermicidal jellies, and may develop an allergic-type reaction within the bladder, causing inflammation.
- Cystitis associated with other conditions. Cystitis may sometimes occur as a complication of other disorders, such as gynecologic cancers, pelvic inflammatory disorders, endometriosis, Crohn's disease, diverticulitis, lupus or tuberculosis.
Some people are more likely than are others to develop bladder infections or recurrent urinary tract infections. Women are one such group. A key reason is physical anatomy. Women have a shorter urethra than men have, which cuts down on the distance bacteria must travel to reach the bladder.
Women at greatest risk of UTIs include those who:
- Are sexually active. Sexual intercourse can result in bacteria being pushed into the urethra.
- Use certain types of birth control. Women who use diaphragms are at increased risk of a UTI. Diaphragms that contain spermicidal agents further increase your risk.
- Are pregnant. Hormonal changes during pregnancy may increase the risk of a bladder infection.
Other risk factors in both men and women include:
- Interference with the flow of urine. This can occur in conditions such as a stone in the bladder or, in men, an enlarged prostate.
- Changes in the immune system. This can occur with conditions such as diabetes, HIV infection and cancer treatment. A lowered immune system increases the risk of bacterial and, in some cases, viral bladder infections.
- Prolonged use of bladder catheters. These tubes may be needed in people with chronic illnesses or in older adults. Prolonged use can result in increased vulnerability to bacterial infections as well as bladder tissue damage.
In men without any predisposing health issues, cystitis is rare.
When treated promptly and properly, bladder infections rarely lead to complications. But left untreated, they can become something more serious. Complications may include:
- Kidney infection. An untreated bladder infection can lead to kidney infection, also called pyelonephritis (pie-uh-low-nuh-FRY-tis). Kidney infections may permanently damage your kidneys. Young children and older adults are at the greatest risk of kidney damage from bladder infections because their symptoms are often overlooked or mistaken for other conditions.
- Blood in the urine. With cystitis, you may have blood cells in your urine that can be seen only with a microscope (microscopic hematuria) and that usually resolves with treatment. If blood cells remain after treatment, your doctor may recommend a specialist to determine the cause. Blood in the urine that you can see (gross hematuria) is rare with typical, bacterial cystitis, but this sign is not uncommon with chemotherapy- or radiation-induced cystitis.
Cranberry juice or tablets containing proanthocyanidin may or may not help reduce the risk of recurrent bladder infections for some women. Conflicting results from research studies make it difficult to know whether cranberry juice really helps or whether there's a placebo effect. As a home remedy, avoid cranberry juice if you're taking the blood-thinning medication warfarin (Coumadin). Possible interactions between cranberry juice and warfarin can lead to bleeding.
Although these preventive self-care measures aren't well-studied, doctors sometimes recommend the following for repeated bladder infections:
- Drink plenty of liquids, especially water. Drinking lots of fluids is especially important if you're getting chemotherapy or radiation therapy, particularly on treatment days.
- Urinate frequently. If you feel the urge to urinate, don't delay using the toilet.
- Wipe from front to back after a bowel movement. This prevents bacteria in the anal region from spreading to the vagina and urethra.
- Take showers rather than tub baths. If you're susceptible to infections, showering rather than bathing may help prevent them.
- Gently wash the skin around the vagina and anus. Do this daily, but don't use harsh soaps or wash too vigorously. The delicate skin around these areas can become irritated.
- Empty your bladder as soon as possible after intercourse. Drink a full glass of water to help flush bacteria.
- Avoid using deodorant sprays or feminine products in the genital area. These products can irritate the urethra and bladder.