All Medical Procedures

ACL stands for Anterior cruciate ligament and ACL Reconstruction refers to a type of surgery to replace the important ligament i.e. the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) in the patient's knee. ACL injuries are the ones, which usually occur while playing sports especially the sports including quick direction changes, jumps, fast running and sudden stops e.g. volleyball, soccer, basketball, hockey, skiing, and football. ACL injuries happen when the ACL gets stretched and is resultantly teared off. ACL is an essential part of the knee as it helps in binding and keeping the knee stable. It is present between the tibia and the femur bones and prevents the slipping of the tibia. Its main function is to provide complete strength to the knee when the knee moves from one side to the other side. Damaging the ACL may result in discomfort or difficulty in playing sports, walking, jumping or running. Injury of ACL may take a lot of time to heal and requires continuous doctor consultations and physiotherapy. If the ACL damage is severe, the doctor will advise getting the ACL replaced through a surgical process especially in athletes and young people.

The ankle-brachial index test is a quick, noninvasive way to check your risk of peripheral artery disease (PAD). Peripheral artery disease is a condition in which the arteries in your legs or arms are narrowed or blocked. People with peripheral artery disease are at a high risk of heart attack, stroke, poor circulation and leg pain.

The ankle-brachial index test compares your blood pressure measured at your ankle with your blood pressure measured at your arm. A low ankle-brachial index number can indicate narrowing or blockage of the arteries in your legs, leading to circulatory problems, heart disease or stroke. The ankle-brachial index test is sometimes recommended as part of a series of three tests, including the carotid ultrasound and abdominal ultrasound, to check for blocked or narrowed arteries.

Arthroscopy (ahr-THROS-skuh-pee) is a procedure for diagnosing and treating joint problems. During arthroscopy, a surgeon inserts a narrow tube containing a fiber-optic video camera through a small incision — about the size of a buttonhole. The view inside your joint is transmitted to a video monitor.

Arthroscopy allows the surgeon to see inside your joint without having to make a large incision. Surgeons can even repair some types of joint damage during arthroscopy, with pencil-thin surgical instruments inserted through additional small incisions.

Cortisone shots are injections that may help relieve pain and inflammation in a specific area of your body. Cortisone shots are most commonly given into joints — such as your ankle, elbow, hip, knee, shoulder, spine and wrist. Even the small joints in your hands and feet may benefit from cortisone shots.

Cortisone shots usually include a corticosteroid medication and a local anesthetic. In many cases, cortisone shots can be administered in your doctor's office. However, the number of cortisone shots you can receive in one year generally is limited because of potential side effects from the medication.

Diskectomy is a surgical procedure to remove the damaged portion of a herniated disk in your spine. A herniated disk can irritate or compress nearby nerves and cause pain, numbness or weakness. These symptoms can affect your neck or back or may radiate down your arms or legs.

Diskectomy works best on radiating symptoms. It's less helpful for actual back pain or neck pain. Most people who have back pain or neck pain find relief with more-conservative treatments, such as pain medications or physical therapy.

Your doctor may suggest diskectomy if conservative, nonsurgical treatments haven't worked or if your symptoms worsen. There are several ways to perform a diskectomy. Many surgeons now prefer minimally invasive diskectomy, which uses small incisions and a tiny video camera for viewing.

Hip replacement is a surgery performed to treat severe damage to the hips. During the Hip replacement surgery, the surgeon removes some damaged sections of the cartilage and bone in the hip and replaces it with metal or hard plastic parts. These replaced prosthesis or artificial joints help in decreasing the pain and enhancing the hip function. These artificial joints are fitted into the femur and pelvis, with or without the help of cement. Hip replacement is also known as hip arthroplasty. The doctors advise a hip replacement surgery if the hip interferes in the daily routine activities and if any conservative procedures have not been of much help. The most common reason for getting a hip replacement done is arthritis as arthritis causes pain, reduced motion and swelling in the joints. Hip replacement surgery helps in relieving such symptoms and improving the quality of life of the patient.

A knee brace for osteoarthritis may help reduce pain by shifting your weight off the most damaged portion of your knee. This may improve your ability to get around and help increase the distance you can walk comfortably.

Knee braces come in a variety of designs, but most are constructed with a combination of rigid and flexible materials — plastic, metal or other composite material for basic structure and support, and synthetic rubber or moldable foam for padding and positioning.

Knee osteotomy is a surgical procedure that may be recommended if you have arthritis damage in just one area of your knee. The procedure involves removing or adding a wedge of bone to your upper shinbone (tibia) or lower thighbone (femur) to help shift your body weight off the damaged portion of your knee joint.

Knee osteotomy is most commonly performed on people who may be considered too young for a total knee replacement. Total knee replacements wear out much more quickly in people younger than 55 than in people older than 70.

Many people who undergo knee osteotomy will eventually need a total knee replacement — usually about 10 to 15 years after the knee osteotomy.

Knee replacement surgery — also known as knee arthroplasty (ARTH-row-plas-tee) — can help relieve pain and restore function in severely diseased knee joints. During knee replacement, a surgeon cuts away damaged bone and cartilage from your thighbone, shinbone and kneecap and replaces it with an artificial joint made of metal alloys, high-grade plastics and polymers.

The first artificial knees were little more than crude hinges. Now, you and your doctor can choose from a wide variety of designs that take into account your age, weight, activity level and overall health. Most knee replacement joints attempt to replicate your knee's natural ability to roll and glide as it bends.

Lumbar puncture (spinal tap) is performed in your lower back, in the lumbar region. During lumbar puncture, a needle is inserted between two lumbar bones (vertebrae) to remove a sample of cerebrospinal fluid — the fluid that surrounds your brain and spinal cord to protect them from injury.

A lumbar puncture can help diagnose serious infections, such as meningitis; other disorders of the central nervous system, such as Guillain-Barre syndrome and multiple sclerosis; or cancers of the brain or spinal cord. Sometimes doctors use lumbar puncture to inject anesthetic medications or chemotherapy drugs into the cerebrospinal fluid.

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