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Polysomnography is the test or the study performed on a person, who is completely asleep. Hence, It is also known as the sleep study. Polysomnography is basically done to detect sleeping disorders. Polysomnography records the following while a patient is asleep:

  • Breathing cycle (respiration)
  • Heart rate
  • Level of oxygen in the blood
  • Brain waves
  • Muscle tone
  • Leg Movements
  • Eye movements

A polysomnography test may be performed at a sleep center or in a special room in the hospital. The patient is usually asked to come in the late evening for the polysomnography test, in order to record the various sleep patterns while the patient is asleep. The entire process of polysomnography is being monitored and then analyzed by an experienced sleep specialist. Polysomnography test usually records the patient’s body shifts between 2 phases i.e. Rapid eye movement (REM) and Non-rapid eye movement (NREM). Non-rapid eye movement is further divided into 2 stages:

  • Light sleep
  • Deep sleep

While tracking the phase of rapid eye movement (REM), it is usually observed that the activity of the patient’s brain is very high and the only active parts are the breathing muscles and eyes.

While tracking the phase of non-rapid eye movement (NREM), it is observed that the activity of the patient’s brain is quite low. Hence, a person without any sleep disorders will shift between Non-REM to REM phase in every 2 hours, having 4 to 6 sleep cycles each night. The sleep specialist carefully monitors the body reactions and the sleep cycles of the patient, and hence, detect any disruptions in the sleep pattern.

Septoplasty, also known as turbinectomy or turbinoplasty, is a surgery to fix the deviated or deformed nasal septum. The nasal septum is a partly bone and partly cartilage based thin wall, which divides and is present between the two nostrils (left and right). During the surgical procedure of septoplasty, the nasal septum is repositioned and straightened to the exact center of the nose. The procedure may involve removing or cutting some parts of the nasal septum and aligning the same back into the correct position. The crooked nasal septum might be a birth defect or can happen as a result of an injury on the nose. This condition can lead to various problems in the patient e.g. difficulty in breathing or easy sinus infections (sinusitis), especially, when the nose becomes claggy i.e. there is no passing of air in and out. This can also make the growth of bacteria inside the nose, further leading to inflammation and infections.  In such cases, the septoplasty procedure helps in improving the airflow, nosebleeds and correcting sinus drainage.

Tonsillectomy is a surgical procedure to remove the tonsils present at the back of the throat. Tonsils are two oval-shaped glands or tissue pads located at the back of the throat, with each tonsil present on the either side of the throat. The procedure of tonsillectomy, has been historically performed to treat the inflammation and infection due to bacteria and viruses in the throat. This inflammation of throat due to bacteria and viruses is also known as tonsillitis. In this condition, the throat becomes sore along with fever, redness, swelling, and pain in the tonsils, felt by the patient. Tonsillectomy is often performed to treat the breathing problems associated with sleep disorders. It may also be done to treat various problems related to breathing and enlarged tonsils, along with some rare tonsil diseases. Once the surgery is done, the person cannot get tonsillitis ever. The recovery time after the surgical procedure of tonsillectomy is usually, 10 to 14 days

Tracheostomy is a surgical procedure to create a hole by making an incision in the windpipe or trachea, through the neck. The trachea is the windpipe, 4 inches in length and it starts just below the voice box, known as larynx. Tracheostomy is done when the normal airway or breathing route through the nose or mouth is obstructed. Tracheostomy is helpful in proper breathing till the patient is on a long-term ventilator or in accident cases, where the airway gets suddenly blocked after a traumatic injury to neck or face. This procedure involves the use of a tube (tracheostomy tube/Trach tube) which is put in the tracheal opening to keep the breathing undisturbed. The tracheostomy tube is placed below the vocal cords. A tracheostomy can be a permanent procedure or temporary. If a tracheostomy is not needed anymore, the hole is either closed surgically or allowed to heal.

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