All Medical Procedures

Nephrectomy (nuh-FREK-tuh-me) is a surgical procedure to remove all or part of a kidney:

  • Complete nephrectomy. During a complete (radical) nephrectomy, the surgeon removes the entire kidney.
  • Partial nephrectomy. In a partial nephrectomy, the surgeon removes diseased tissue from a kidney and leaves healthy tissue in place.

A nephrectomy is most often done to treat kidney cancer or to remove a seriously damaged or diseased kidney. The surgeon may perform the procedure through a single large incision in the abdomen or side (open nephrectomy) or through a series of small incisions in the abdomen (laparoscopic nephrectomy).

In a donor nephrectomy, the surgeon removes a healthy kidney for transplant into a person who needs a functioning kidney.

A nonstress test is a common prenatal test used to check on a baby's health. During a nonstress test, also known as fetal heart rate monitoring, a baby's heart rate is monitored to see how it responds to the baby's movements.

Typically, a nonstress test is recommended for women at increased risk of fetal death. A nonstress test is usually done after week 26 of pregnancy. Certain nonstress test results might indicate that you and your baby need further monitoring, testing or special care.

A nonstress test is a noninvasive test that doesn't pose any physical risks to you or your baby. Find out what a nonstress test involves and whether this prenatal test might benefit you or your baby.

A Pacemaker is a small, electronic device, which is battery-operated and placed under in the heart. The function of the pacemaker is to make the heart beat properly and regularly and at a normal rate. The pacemaker is put under the skin of the heart and assists in controlling the irregular heartbeat known as arrhythmia. The pacemaker sends electrical signals to the muscles of the heart to stimulate the ventricles (lower heart chambers) and maintain the heart rate. This device also helps in treating the following conditions:

  • Bradycardia i.e. too slow heartbeat, which may occur due to the normal aging, when the heart muscles start getting weak. This may further lead to a heart attack or some other major heart problems.
  • Tachycardia i.e. too fast heartbeat.

The problem of abnormal heart rate may arise due to some medications or because of certain other factors, however, the pacemaker can solve all these problems of abnormal heart rate even without knowing the exact cause. A pacemaker can be installed with minor surgery.

Pap smear or Pap test is performed to check for cervical cancer in females. Pap smear involves the scraping of the cells from the cervix, which is a narrow, lower end of the uterus, present at the top of the vagina. This collection of cells sample is then sent to the lab to be reviewed under the microscope. The Pap smear test enables the physician to make an intervention and thereby helps in curing cervical cancer, if detected at an early stage. This test may also detect the risk of developing cervical cancer sometime in the future or detect any other relevant changes in the cells present in the cervix. The Pap test is an important step in the early diagnosis of developing cancer. Pap test is a quick, simple and painless screening test and is usually advised for every woman between the age range of 21 and 65 years.

Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (nef-roe-lih-THOT-uh-me) is a procedure used to remove kidney stones from the body when they cannot pass on their own. This procedure uses small telescopes and instruments inserted through a small incision in your back to remove the kidney stones.

Percutaneous nephrolithotomy is used most often for larger stones or when other procedures, such as extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy or ureteroscopy, are unsuccessful or not possible.

Peritoneal dialysis (per-ih-tuh-NEE-ul di-AL-uh-sis) is a way to remove waste products from your blood when your kidneys can no longer do the job adequately. During peritoneal dialysis, blood vessels in your abdominal lining (peritoneum) fill in for your kidneys, with the help of a fluid (dialysate) that flows into and out of the peritoneal space.

Peritoneal dialysis differs from hemodialysis, a more commonly used blood-filtering procedure. With peritoneal dialysis, you can give yourself treatments at home, at work or while traveling. You may be able to use fewer medications and eat a less restrictive diet than you can with hemodialysis.

Peritoneal dialysis isn't an option for everyone with kidney failure. You need manual dexterity and the ability to care for yourself at home or a reliable caregiver.

Polysomnography is the test or the study performed on a person, who is completely asleep. Hence, It is also known as the sleep study. Polysomnography is basically done to detect sleeping disorders. Polysomnography records the following while a patient is asleep:

  • Breathing cycle (respiration)
  • Heart rate
  • Level of oxygen in the blood
  • Brain waves
  • Muscle tone
  • Leg Movements
  • Eye movements

A polysomnography test may be performed at a sleep center or in a special room in the hospital. The patient is usually asked to come in the late evening for the polysomnography test, in order to record the various sleep patterns while the patient is asleep. The entire process of polysomnography is being monitored and then analyzed by an experienced sleep specialist. Polysomnography test usually records the patient’s body shifts between 2 phases i.e. Rapid eye movement (REM) and Non-rapid eye movement (NREM). Non-rapid eye movement is further divided into 2 stages:

  • Light sleep
  • Deep sleep

While tracking the phase of rapid eye movement (REM), it is usually observed that the activity of the patient’s brain is very high and the only active parts are the breathing muscles and eyes.

While tracking the phase of non-rapid eye movement (NREM), it is observed that the activity of the patient’s brain is quite low. Hence, a person without any sleep disorders will shift between Non-REM to REM phase in every 2 hours, having 4 to 6 sleep cycles each night. The sleep specialist carefully monitors the body reactions and the sleep cycles of the patient, and hence, detect any disruptions in the sleep pattern.

A positron emission tomography (PET) scan is an imaging test that helps reveal how your tissues and organs are functioning. A PET scan uses a radioactive drug (tracer) to show this activity.

The tracer may be injected, swallowed or inhaled, depending on which organ or tissue is being studied by the PET scan. The tracer collects in areas of your body that have higher levels of chemical activity, which often correspond to areas of disease. On a PET scan, these areas show up as bright spots.

A PET scan is useful in revealing or evaluating several conditions, including some cancers, heart disease and brain disorders.

Prostate laser surgery is used to relieve moderate to severe urinary symptoms caused by an enlarged prostate, a condition known as benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH).

During prostate laser surgery, your doctor inserts a scope through the tip of your penis into the tube that carries urine from your bladder (urethra). The urethra is surrounded by the prostate. A laser is passed through the scope. The laser delivers energy that is used to shrink or to remove the excess tissue that is blocking the urethra and preventing urine flow.

All lasers use concentrated light to generate precise and intense heat. Laser surgery removes excess prostate tissue by:

  • Ablation. The laser melts away excess tissue.
  • Enucleation. The laser cuts away excess prostate tissue.

There are different types of prostate laser surgery, such as:

  • Photoselective vaporization of the prostate (PVP). A laser is used to melt away (vaporize) excess prostate tissue to enlarge the urinary channel.
  • Holmium laser ablation of the prostate (HoLAP). This is a similar procedure to PVP, except that a different type of laser is used to melt away (vaporize) the excess prostate tissue.
  • Holmium laser enucleation of the prostate (HoLEP). The laser is used to cut and remove the excess tissue that is blocking the urethra. Another instrument, called a morcellator, is then used to chop the prostate tissue into small pieces that are easily removed.

The type of laser surgery your doctor will perform depends on several factors, including the size of your prostate, your health, the type of laser equipment available and your doctor's training.

Psychotherapy comprises of a range of psychological treatments involving techniques of counselling and its applications towards the alleviation of psychological distress and the treatment of various mental disorders, as well as improving mental and psychological well-being.


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