All Medical Procedures

Quad Screen or Quadruple marker is a blood test done during the second trimester (15-20 weeks) of pregnancy to identify some chromosomal abnormalities birth defects in the unborn baby. The Quad screen test is done to evaluate levels of the multiple substances in the women’s blood as mentioned below.

  • Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG); a hormone produced by the placenta
  • Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP); a protein produced by the growing baby.
  • Inhibin A; a hormone produced by the placenta
  • Unconjugated Estriol (UE); a hormone produced by baby's liver and placenta

The levels of the above-mentioned substances keep changing every week, during the pregnancy. Hence, before conducting the test it is essential to know the phase and stage of the pregnancy of the woman.  Quad screen test is safe for the baby and helps to identify any chromosomal, some of the genetic defects or developing problems in the unborn baby such as Down's syndrome, problems in the spinal cord, brain or other neural tissues of the central nervous system etc.

There is a significance of each biomarker, identified by Quad Screen test. Each biomarker serves the purpose of identifying the abnormalities in the babies’ health. The higher AFP levels in the blood, identified during the Quad Screen test, help to identify neural problems like spina bifida. However, if the AFP levels are low, then the woman is at the risk of bearing the baby with Down’s syndrome. The high levels of hCG and inhibin A also indicate the risk of Down’s syndrome. If unconjugated estriol levels are low, the woman is again at risk of Down's syndrome. 

The test provides certainty of a healthy pregnancy if the risk level is low. Approximately, 1 in 720 babies has Down’s syndrome at the time of birth. A Quad test can diagnose 85-90% of the cases of Down’s syndrome in the women aged 35 or above and hence is a very effective test and is critical for the expecting mothers to undertake.

Rhinoplasty (RIE-no-plas-tee), also referred to as nose surgery, is a surgery that changes the shape of the nose. The motivation for rhinoplasty may be to change the appearance of the nose, its function or both.

When planning rhinoplasty, your surgeon considers your features, the skin on your nose and what you would like to change. The upper portion of the structure of the nose is bone, and the lower portion is cartilage. Rhinoplasty can modify bone, cartilage, skin or all three. Talk with your surgeon about whether rhinoplasty is appropriate for you and what it can achieve.

Sclerotherapy is a medical procedure, performed to treat the spider veins and varicose veins. Varicose veins are twisted, swollen and painful, blood-filled veins. Sclerotherapy is not mandatory for the patients and is done after the consultation between a patient and the physician. During this procedure, the doctor injects a solution into the veins of the patient directly. This solution, used during sclerotherapy, causes the scarring and collapsing of the veins, which further pushes the blood into the healthy veins. The affected veins get collapsed and absorbed by the surrounding tissue, and slowly fade away. This fading away of the affected veins may take a few weeks and sometimes, the complete results might be observed in a month. Usually, the varicose veins are found in the legs and are blue in color. Normally, the valves present in the veins help the blood flow to the heart, preventing the blood to collect in a single area. However, in the case of varicose veins, these valves get damaged, resulting in filling up of the veins, at a single place, with blood. This collection of blood is common when a person is standing.

Sentinel node biopsy is a procedure in which a small tissue sample is taken to test if the cancer has spread into the lymphatic system or lymph nodes. Lymph nodes are oval-shaped small organs, considered to be a part of the immune system, and present in various parts of the body. They are usually present near the internal organs like lungs, intestines, and stomach, and in areas like neck, armpits, and groin. Sentinel node biopsy is performed to detect melanoma and breast cancer. Sentinel nodes are the primary lymph nodes in which the drainage of the tumor is commonly observed. Usually, a tracer material is injected during the surgery, which helps the surgeon to locate the sentinel lymph nodes clearly. After the sentinel lymph nodes are removed from the body, they are further sent to the lab for detailed analysis. If the sentinel lymph nodes do not contain cancer cells, then the removal of additional lymph nodes is not required. However, if the cancer is present in the sentinel lymph nodes, then the additional lymph nodes are required to be removed for the doctor to examine the cancer spread.

Septoplasty, also known as turbinectomy or turbinoplasty, is a surgery to fix the deviated or deformed nasal septum. The nasal septum is a partly bone and partly cartilage based thin wall, which divides and is present between the two nostrils (left and right). During the surgical procedure of septoplasty, the nasal septum is repositioned and straightened to the exact center of the nose. The procedure may involve removing or cutting some parts of the nasal septum and aligning the same back into the correct position. The crooked nasal septum might be a birth defect or can happen as a result of an injury on the nose. This condition can lead to various problems in the patient e.g. difficulty in breathing or easy sinus infections (sinusitis), especially, when the nose becomes claggy i.e. there is no passing of air in and out. This can also make the growth of bacteria inside the nose, further leading to inflammation and infections.  In such cases, the septoplasty procedure helps in improving the airflow, nosebleeds and correcting sinus drainage.

Skin biopsy is a diagnostic procedure which involves taking a small tissue sample from the skin and examining it carefully under a microscope to evaluate various skin problems and medical condition of the person. The doctor advises a skin biopsy in order to check for certain skin diseases and conditions. There are various types of skin biopsies which are as mentioned:

  • Shave biopsy – In this procedure, the doctor uses a razor-like tool, which helps in removing a small portion of the upper layer of the skin i.e. epidermis and some part of dermis.
  • Punch biopsy – In this procedure, the doctor uses a circular shaped tool, that helps in removing tissues from deeper skin layer i.e. epidermis, dermis, and superficial fat layers.
  • Excisional biopsy – In this procedure, the doctor uses a scalpel (a small knife) to remove the affected skin or lump completely along with a small part of the surrounding normal tissue down through or to the fatty skin layer.

The type of skin biopsy advised, depends upon the size and the location of the affected area known as a skin lesion.

Sperm donation is a process that involves collecting the semen and giving or donating it. Semen is the fluid or thick liquid which is released during ejaculation. This is a procedure to assist the couple or an individual to conceive a baby. When these sperms are collected, they are stored in a special environment and then when required, inseminated into the female's reproductive organs. This process is also known as intrauterine insemination. If the sperm donation is used for the fertilization of the matured eggs in the laboratory, then the process is known as in vitro fertilization. The man who is a sperm donor can be anonymous or known to the recipient. If the donation of the sperms is done by a person known to the recipient then it is called directed donations. The man who donates sperms has to go through a complete medical check-up in order to screen for any risks or problems before donating the sperms. It is very important for a person to know the possible psychological, emotional and legal issues of the process of sperm donation.

Spirometry is a commonly used lung test to evaluate the functioning of the lungs. Spirometry is done to measure the airflow in and out of the lungs, and it also measures the amount of air exhaled and how quickly the person can exhale the same amount of air. Spirometry is a test performed to measure the lung capacity along with its functioning. Spirometry is helpful in diagnosing some medical conditions like chronic pulmonary obstructive disorder (COPD), restrictive lung disease (e.g. interstitial pulmonary fibrosis), asthma and other problems that affect the breathing cycle. This test also assists the doctor to evaluate the response of treatment of chronic lung condition. Spirometry is an effective test that helps in identifying any blockages in the airways, which can be treated by giving medication to the patient to open the airways. These medications are also known as bronchodilator. After few minutes of administering the bronchodilator, the spirometry test is performed again to check if the bronchodilator has helped the patient or not in improving the symptoms or the disease condition. 


Splenectomy is a surgery performed to remove the affected or damaged spleen. The spleen is the organ that lies beneath the rib cage attached to the left side of the abdomen. The spleen is an important organ as it eliminates the dead, damaged or old blood cells from the body. It also helps in fighting against foreign bodies (infections) and filtering unwanted substances from the body. Although most of the blood products are produced by the bone marrow, the spleen also produces a certain type of blood cells and white blood cells. The main reason for Splenectomy surgery is an abdominal injury and it is performed in order to treat the ruptured spleen. Splenectomy is also helpful in treating various other conditions like splenomegaly (enlarged spleen), some cancers, certain blood disorders, and benign tumors or cysts. These days the surgical procedure of splenectomy is often performed by a minimally invasive technique known as laparoscopic splenectomy. This involves a tiny camera and special surgical instruments.

Tonsillectomy is a surgical procedure to remove the tonsils present at the back of the throat. Tonsils are two oval-shaped glands or tissue pads located at the back of the throat, with each tonsil present on the either side of the throat. The procedure of tonsillectomy, has been historically performed to treat the inflammation and infection due to bacteria and viruses in the throat. This inflammation of throat due to bacteria and viruses is also known as tonsillitis. In this condition, the throat becomes sore along with fever, redness, swelling, and pain in the tonsils, felt by the patient. Tonsillectomy is often performed to treat the breathing problems associated with sleep disorders. It may also be done to treat various problems related to breathing and enlarged tonsils, along with some rare tonsil diseases. Once the surgery is done, the person cannot get tonsillitis ever. The recovery time after the surgical procedure of tonsillectomy is usually, 10 to 14 days


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