All Medical Procedures

Chemotherapy is a drug treatment that uses powerful chemicals to kill fast-growing cells in your body.

Chemotherapy is most often used to treat cancer, since cancer cells grow and multiply much more quickly than most cells in the body.

Many different chemotherapy drugs are available. Chemotherapy drugs can be used alone or in combination to treat a wide variety of cancers.

Though chemotherapy is an effective way to treat many types of cancer, chemotherapy treatment also carries a risk of side effects. Some chemotherapy side effects are mild and treatable, while others can cause serious complications.

Chemotherapy for breast cancer uses powerful drugs to target and destroy breast cancer cells. Chemotherapy for breast cancer frequently is used with other treatments, such as surgery, radiation or hormonal therapy. Combining chemotherapy for breast cancer with other treatments may increase the chance of a cure or decrease the risk of the cancer returning.

If the cancer has recurred or spread, chemotherapy for breast cancer may control the cancer to help you live longer. Or it can help ease symptoms the cancer is causing.

But chemotherapy for breast cancer also carries a risk of side effects — some temporary and mild, others more serious or permanent. Your doctor can help you decide whether chemotherapy for breast cancer is a good choice for you.

Chest X-ray is a very commonly used imaging technique that produces images of the body structures especially bones and soft tissues. In this technique, an X-ray beam passes through the body and gets absorbed in multiple body structures depending upon their density. A chest X-ray helps to see and produce images of the following body structures and problems associated with them:

  • Lungs
  • Heart
  • Vasculature
  • Rib cage and various other bones of the chest and spine.
  • Airways

Metals and Bones are the most dense structures in the human body. Bones and metal present in the body appear to be white in an X-ray. Muscles and fat appear in different shades of grey.  The air in the lungs of the human body appears to be black in color.

Chest X-ray is a type of electromagnetic radiation similar to visible light. These radiations when captured form an image on the X-ray film or the monitor. The image hence formed helps the doctor to locate the affected area in the patient’s body.

In case of a chest pain, shortness of breath or chest injury, the doctor may advise to get a chest X-ray done. This helps the doctor to locate fractures, abnormalities in heart or lungs, and multiple other abnormalities.

Cholecystectomy (koh-luh-sis-TEK-tuh-me) is a surgical procedure to remove your gallbladder — a pear-shaped organ that sits just below your liver on the upper right side of your abdomen. Your gallbladder collects and stores bile — a digestive fluid produced in your liver.

Cholecystectomy may be necessary if you experience pain from gallstones that block the flow of bile. Cholecystectomy is a common surgery, and it carries only a small risk of complications. In most cases, you can go home the same day of your cholecystectomy.

Cholecystectomy is most commonly performed by inserting a tiny video camera and special surgical tools through four small incisions to see inside your abdomen and remove the gallbladder. Doctors call this laparoscopic cholecystectomy. In some cases, one large incision may be used to remove the gallbladder. This is called an open cholecystectomy.

A complete cholesterol test — also called a lipid panel or lipid profile — is a blood test that can measure the amount of cholesterol and triglycerides in your blood. A cholesterol test can help determine your risk of the buildup of plaques in your arteries that can lead to narrowed or blocked arteries throughout your body (atherosclerosis). High cholesterol levels usually don't cause any signs or symptoms, so a cholesterol test is an important tool. High cholesterol levels often are a significant risk factor for heart disease.

Chorionic villus sampling (CVS) is a test performed in some pregnant women to screen their babies for the diagnosis of any birth defects or pregnancy-related issues. Chorionic villus sampling can also help in early diagnosis of any chromosomal disorders e.g. Down’s syndrome or for any genetic problems e.g. cystic fibrosis or sickle cell anemia. In Chorionic villus sampling, a small part of the chorionic villi (a small sample of cells) is taken from the placenta and from there it is attached to the wall of the uterus for the diagnosis and testing. The sample to be used for testing can come from either the abdominal or the cervix wall. At the time of pregnancy, the placenta supplies nutrients and oxygen to the unborn baby and also cleans the baby’s blood by taking out the waste.

Chorionic villi are very small wispy protuberances that form the placenta. They develop from the fertilized eggs and share the genetic makeup of the baby. They have the genes which are very similar to the genes of the baby.

Circumcision is the surgical removal of the skin covering the tip of the penis. Circumcision is fairly common for newborn boys in certain parts of the world, including the United States. Circumcision after the newborn period is possible, but it's a more complex procedure.

For some families, circumcision is a religious ritual. Circumcision can also be a matter of family tradition, personal hygiene or preventive health care. For others, however, circumcision seems unnecessary or disfiguring. After circumcision, it isn't generally possible to re-create the appearance of an uncircumcised penis.

Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (CBT), which is one of the most researched and evidence-based form of psychotherapy been used over the past decade, relies on the basic premise of the connections between our thoughts, emotions and behaviours.

Colectomy is a surgical procedure to remove a part or all of the colon. The colon is known as the large intestine. It is a large, hollow tube-like organ, present at the end of the digestive tract. Colectomy is advised in order to treat and prevent any conditions or diseases affecting the large intestine or colon.

The different types of colectomy surgeries are as mentioned:

  • Total colectomy – It is a form of colectomy which involves the removal of the entire colon from the patient’s body.
  • Partial colectomy – This type of colectomy procedure involves the removal of only an affected portion of the colon. This is also known as a subtotal colectomy.
  • Hemicolectomy – This type of surgical procedure of colectomy involves the removal of either right or left part of the colon.
  • Proctocolectomy - This form of colectomy involves the removal of both of the affected rectum and the colon of the patient.

After the surgical procedure of colectomy, the remaining parts of the digestive tract are attached together to eliminate waste from the body. This further involves another surgical procedure.


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