All Medical Procedures

The A1C test is a common blood test used to diagnose type 1 and type 2 diabetes and then to gauge how well you're managing your diabetes. The A1C test goes by many other names, including glycated hemoglobin, glycosylated hemoglobin, hemoglobin A1C and HbA1c.

The A1C test result reflects your average blood sugar level for the past two to three months. Specifically, the A1C test measures what percentage of your hemoglobin — a protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen — is coated with sugar (glycated). The higher your A1C level, the poorer your blood sugar control and the higher your risk of diabetes complications.

ACL stands for Anterior cruciate ligament and ACL Reconstruction refers to a type of surgery to replace the important ligament i.e. the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) in the patient's knee. ACL injuries are the ones, which usually occur while playing sports especially the sports including quick direction changes, jumps, fast running and sudden stops e.g. volleyball, soccer, basketball, hockey, skiing, and football. ACL injuries happen when the ACL gets stretched and is resultantly teared off. ACL is an essential part of the knee as it helps in binding and keeping the knee stable. It is present between the tibia and the femur bones and prevents the slipping of the tibia. Its main function is to provide complete strength to the knee when the knee moves from one side to the other side. Damaging the ACL may result in discomfort or difficulty in playing sports, walking, jumping or running. Injury of ACL may take a lot of time to heal and requires continuous doctor consultations and physiotherapy. If the ACL damage is severe, the doctor will advise getting the ACL replaced through a surgical process especially in athletes and young people.

An ANA test detects antinuclear antibodies (ANA) in your blood. Your immune system normally makes antibodies to help you fight infection. In contrast, antinuclear antibodies often attack your body's own tissues — specifically targeting each cell's nucleus.

In most cases, a positive ANA test indicates that your immune system has launched a misdirected attack on your own tissue — in other words, an autoimmune reaction. But some people have positive ANA tests even when they're healthy.

Your doctor may order an ANA test if he or she suspects you have an autoimmune disease such as lupus, rheumatoid arthritis or scleroderma.

Although an abdominal ultrasound can be done to check for a number of conditions, it can be used to screen for an abdominal aortic aneurysm. An abdominal aortic aneurysm is a weakened, bulging spot in your abdominal aorta, the artery that runs through the middle of your abdomen and supplies blood to the lower half of your body.

An abdominal ultrasound can also be used to check for other diseases that affect your kidneys, liver, gallbladder and pancreas.

An abdominal ultrasound to screen for an abdominal aortic aneurysm is recommended for men ages 65 to 75 who are current or former cigarette smokers. Having an abdominal ultrasound to screen for an aortic aneurysm isn't specifically recommended for men who have never smoked, nor women, unless your doctor suspects you may have an aneurysm.

Abdominal hysterectomy is a surgical procedure that removes your uterus through an incision in your lower abdomen. Your uterus — or womb — is where a baby grows if you're pregnant. A partial hysterectomy removes just the uterus, and a total hysterectomy removes the uterus and the cervix.

Sometimes a hysterectomy includes removal of one or both ovaries and fallopian tubes, a procedure called total hysterectomy with salpingo-oophorectomy (sal-ping-go-o-of-uh-REK-tuh-me).

Hysterectomy can also be performed through an incision in the vagina (vaginal hysterectomy) or by a laparoscopic or robotic surgical approach — which uses long, thin instruments passed through small abdominal incisions. Abdominal hysterectomy may be recommended over other types of hysterectomy if you have a large uterus or if your doctor wants to check other pelvic organs for signs of disease.

Active surveillance is also known as watchful waiting. It is the examination and close monitoring of the signs of prostate cancer or any progression in cancer. Prostate cancer is a cancer in walnut-sized Prostate Gland present only in men. It is one of the common cancers to occur in men. During the active surveillance stage, no treatment is advised to the patient and the physician and the patient are just waiting and watching carefully. No treatment in this stage means no medicines, surgery, or radiations to be involved. Regular tests like Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) blood tests or prostate biopsies (yearly) are done to monitor any signs of growth of prostate cancer.

Active surveillance for prostate cancer is usually preferred when the cancer size is small and is growing at a very slow pace. This is also preferred when the cancer is restricted to one part of the prostate and not showing any remarkable signs and symptoms of worsening.

Acupuncture involves the insertion of extremely thin needles through your skin at strategic points on your body. A key component of traditional Chinese medicine, acupuncture is most commonly used to treat pain.

Traditional Chinese medicine explains acupuncture as a technique for balancing the flow of energy or life force — known as qi or chi (CHEE) — believed to flow through pathways (meridians) in your body. By inserting needles into specific points along these meridians, acupuncture practitioners believe that your energy flow will re-balance.

In contrast, many Western practitioners view the acupuncture points as places to stimulate nerves, muscles and connective tissue. Some believe that this stimulation boosts your body's natural painkillers and increases blood flow.

Allergy shots are injections you receive at regular intervals over a period of approximately three to five years to stop or reduce allergy attacks. Allergy shots are a form of treatment called immunotherapy. Each allergy shot contains a tiny amount of the specific substance or substances that trigger your allergic reactions. These are called allergens. Allergy shots contain just enough allergens to stimulate your immune system — but not enough to cause a full-blown allergic reaction.

Over time, your doctor increases the dose of allergens in each of your allergy shots. This helps get your body used to the allergens (desensitization). Your immune system builds up a tolerance to the allergens, causing your allergy symptoms to diminish over time.

During allergy skin tests, your skin is exposed to suspected allergy-causing substances (allergens) and is then observed for signs of an allergic reaction.

Along with your medical history, allergy tests may be able to confirm whether or not a particular substance you touch, breathe or eat is causing symptoms.

Amniocentesis is a prenatal test done during the 15-16th week of the pregnancy. Amniocentesis is a procedure where a small sample (less than one ounce) is taken from the amniotic fluid for testing. Amniotic fluid is present around the fetus and acts as a cushion protecting the fetus during the pregnancy. The volume of the fluid taken depends on the baby’s gestational age. The fluid looks like water and consists of various free-floating live fetal cells, tissues, urine along with other chemicals such as Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) released by the fetus. The sample is sent to the laboratory for further detailed analysis. These substances help in understanding the health of the fetus before birth.

The amniotic fluid is extracted through a fine and long needle from the uterus through the abdomen. The procedure is guided by an ultrasound. Amniocentesis is helpful in detecting any birth defects, condition of the lungs, infections or other complications in the fetus.

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