Key Medical Procedures & Tests - Top Hospitals in India For Medical Treatment| Fortis Healthcare

All Medical Procedures

ACL stands for Anterior cruciate ligament and ACL Reconstruction refers to a type of surgery to replace the important ligament i.e. the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) in the patient's knee. ACL injuries are the ones, which usually occur while playing sports especially the sports including quick direction changes, jumps, fast running and sudden stops e.g. volleyball, soccer, basketball, hockey, skiing, and football. ACL injuries happen when the ACL gets stretched and is resultantly teared off. ACL is an essential part of the knee as it helps in binding and keeping the knee stable. It is present between the tibia and the femur bones and prevents the slipping of the tibia. Its main function is to provide complete strength to the knee when the knee moves from one side to the other side. Damaging the ACL may result in discomfort or difficulty in playing sports, walking, jumping or running. Injury of ACL may take a lot of time to heal and requires continuous doctor consultations and physiotherapy. If the ACL damage is severe, the doctor will advise getting the ACL replaced through a surgical process especially in athletes and young people.

Although an abdominal ultrasound can be done to check for a number of conditions, it can be used to screen for an abdominal aortic aneurysm. An abdominal aortic aneurysm is a weakened, bulging spot in your abdominal aorta, the artery that runs through the middle of your abdomen and supplies blood to the lower half of your body.

An abdominal ultrasound can also be used to check for other diseases that affect your kidneys, liver, gallbladder and pancreas.

An abdominal ultrasound to screen for an abdominal aortic aneurysm is recommended for men ages 65 to 75 who are current or former cigarette smokers. Having an abdominal ultrasound to screen for an aortic aneurysm isn't specifically recommended for men who have never smoked, nor women, unless your doctor suspects you may have an aneurysm.

Abdominal hysterectomy is a surgical procedure that removes your uterus through an incision in your lower abdomen. Your uterus — or womb — is where a baby grows if you're pregnant. A partial hysterectomy removes just the uterus, and a total hysterectomy removes the uterus and the cervix.

Sometimes a hysterectomy includes removal of one or both ovaries and fallopian tubes, a procedure called total hysterectomy with salpingo-oophorectomy (sal-ping-go-o-of-uh-REK-tuh-me).

Hysterectomy can also be performed through an incision in the vagina (vaginal hysterectomy) or by a laparoscopic or robotic surgical approach — which uses long, thin instruments passed through small abdominal incisions. Abdominal hysterectomy may be recommended over other types of hysterectomy if you have a large uterus or if your doctor wants to check other pelvic organs for signs of disease.

Active surveillance is also known as watchful waiting. It is the examination and close monitoring of the signs of prostate cancer or any progression in cancer. Prostate cancer is a cancer in walnut-sized Prostate Gland present only in men. It is one of the common cancers to occur in men. During the active surveillance stage, no treatment is advised to the patient and the physician and the patient are just waiting and watching carefully. No treatment in this stage means no medicines, surgery, or radiations to be involved. Regular tests like Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) blood tests or prostate biopsies (yearly) are done to monitor any signs of growth of prostate cancer.

Active surveillance for prostate cancer is usually preferred when the cancer size is small and is growing at a very slow pace. This is also preferred when the cancer is restricted to one part of the prostate and not showing any remarkable signs and symptoms of worsening.

Amniocentesis is a prenatal test done during the 15-16th week of the pregnancy. Amniocentesis is a procedure where a small sample (less than one ounce) is taken from the amniotic fluid for testing. Amniotic fluid is present around the fetus and acts as a cushion protecting the fetus during the pregnancy. The volume of the fluid taken depends on the baby’s gestational age. The fluid looks like water and consists of various free-floating live fetal cells, tissues, urine along with other chemicals such as Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) released by the fetus. The sample is sent to the laboratory for further detailed analysis. These substances help in understanding the health of the fetus before birth.

The amniotic fluid is extracted through a fine and long needle from the uterus through the abdomen. The procedure is guided by an ultrasound. Amniocentesis is helpful in detecting any birth defects, condition of the lungs, infections or other complications in the fetus.

Biophysical profile (BPP) test is a prenatal test performed to monitor the health of the fetus. This test is a combination of fetal ultrasound and a nonstress test i.e. heart rate monitoring of the fetus. The test is performed to measure the certain attributes in an unborn child including:

  • Normal breathing of the fetus i.e. continuous rhythmic breathing cycles.
  • Normal heart rate and increased heart rate while any movements.
  • Muscle tone e.g. flexing and extension of limbs, closing and opening of mouth and hands or rotation of the baby’s trunk, etc.
  • Movements of the fetus
  • The amniotic fluid which protects the fetus

Both the fetus ultrasound and nonstress test are allocated scores, based on whether the test criteria has been met or not. If the score is low on a Biophysical profile, the doctor may advise going for some more tests to get a confirmed diagnosis. The biophysical test is usually performed in the last trimester of pregnancy or after the 32nd week of pregnancy. This test is a very safe and noninvasive and doesn’t have any side effects. There is no risk involved in the biophysical test either to the expectant mother or to the fetus.

A blood pressure test is done to check the pressure of the blood in the arteries of the patient as the heart pumps. Blood pressure is basically, the pressure of the blood circulating in the blood vessel walls. Blood pressure (BP) test is usually conducted either if the patient has a high BP (a condition known as hypertension) or if it is a part of the routine of the appointment with the doctor.

Blood pressure is one of the vital signs measured in patients by doctors. Others vital signs include heart rate, respiratory rate, body temperature, pulse rate and oxygen saturation. Two readings are taken in a Blood pressure test - Systolic and diastolic. Systolic refers to the higher reading and Diastolic refers to the lower reading in measuring blood pressure. The normal blood pressure in adults is considered to be 120 millimeters of mercury (Hg) systolic (16kPa) and 80 millimeters of mercury diastolic (11kPa). It often referred to as 120 over 80.

A bone density test determines if you have osteoporosis — a disease that causes bones to become more fragile and more likely to break.

In the past, osteoporosis could be detected only after you broke a bone. By that time, however, your bones could be quite weak. A bone density test enhances the accuracy of calculating your risk of breaking bones.

A bone density test uses X-rays to measure how many grams of calcium and other bone minerals are packed into a segment of bone. The bones that are most commonly tested are in the spine, hip and forearm.

Bone marrow biopsy and bone marrow aspiration are procedures to collect and examine bone marrow — the spongy tissue inside some of your larger bones.

Bone marrow biopsy and aspiration can show whether your bone marrow is healthy and making normal amounts of blood cells. Doctors use these procedures to diagnose and monitor blood and marrow diseases, including some cancers, as well as fevers of unknown origin.

Bone marrow has a fluid portion and a more solid portion. In bone marrow biopsy, your doctor uses a needle to withdraw a sample of the solid portion. In bone marrow aspiration, a needle is used to withdraw a sample of the fluid portion.

Bone marrow biopsy and bone marrow aspiration are often done at the same time. Together, these procedures may be called a bone marrow exam.

Botox is a brand name for the medicines that use the different forms of botulinum toxin to weaken or paralyze certain muscles, or sometimes block certain nerves. Botox is produced by a bacterium known as Clostridium botulinum. If used in very large amounts, it can result in muscle paralysis called botulism, which is also related to the food poisoning. Primarily, the Botox injections were used to decrease the appearance of wrinkles on the face, but nowadays these are also used to treat some problems like cervical dystonia (repetitive neck spasms), hyperhidrosis (an excessive amount of sweating), problems related to crossed eye and overactive bladder. In some people with migraine problems, Botox injections may also be of great help. Botox was the first medicine to utilize various forms of botulinum toxin. Now a days, multiple new products like Myobloc, Dysport and Xeomin, utilizing the forms of botulinum toxin, have come into the market. All these products vary from each other, especially in dosage and hence, cannot be replaced with the one another.

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