All Medical Procedures

Cholecystectomy (koh-luh-sis-TEK-tuh-me) is a surgical procedure to remove your gallbladder — a pear-shaped organ that sits just below your liver on the upper right side of your abdomen. Your gallbladder collects and stores bile — a digestive fluid produced in your liver.

Cholecystectomy may be necessary if you experience pain from gallstones that block the flow of bile. Cholecystectomy is a common surgery, and it carries only a small risk of complications. In most cases, you can go home the same day of your cholecystectomy.

Cholecystectomy is most commonly performed by inserting a tiny video camera and special surgical tools through four small incisions to see inside your abdomen and remove the gallbladder. Doctors call this laparoscopic cholecystectomy. In some cases, one large incision may be used to remove the gallbladder. This is called an open cholecystectomy.

Chorionic villus sampling (CVS) is a test performed in some pregnant women to screen their babies for the diagnosis of any birth defects or pregnancy-related issues. Chorionic villus sampling can also help in early diagnosis of any chromosomal disorders e.g. Down’s syndrome or for any genetic problems e.g. cystic fibrosis or sickle cell anemia. In Chorionic villus sampling, a small part of the chorionic villi (a small sample of cells) is taken from the placenta and from there it is attached to the wall of the uterus for the diagnosis and testing. The sample to be used for testing can come from either the abdominal or the cervix wall. At the time of pregnancy, the placenta supplies nutrients and oxygen to the unborn baby and also cleans the baby’s blood by taking out the waste.

Chorionic villi are very small wispy protuberances that form the placenta. They develop from the fertilized eggs and share the genetic makeup of the baby. They have the genes which are very similar to the genes of the baby.

Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (CBT), which is one of the most researched and evidence-based form of psychotherapy been used over the past decade, relies on the basic premise of the connections between our thoughts, emotions and behaviours.

Colectomy is a surgical procedure to remove a part or all of the colon. The colon is known as the large intestine. It is a large, hollow tube-like organ, present at the end of the digestive tract. Colectomy is advised in order to treat and prevent any conditions or diseases affecting the large intestine or colon.

The different types of colectomy surgeries are as mentioned:

  • Total colectomy – It is a form of colectomy which involves the removal of the entire colon from the patient’s body.
  • Partial colectomy – This type of colectomy procedure involves the removal of only an affected portion of the colon. This is also known as a subtotal colectomy.
  • Hemicolectomy – This type of surgical procedure of colectomy involves the removal of either right or left part of the colon.
  • Proctocolectomy - This form of colectomy involves the removal of both of the affected rectum and the colon of the patient.

After the surgical procedure of colectomy, the remaining parts of the digestive tract are attached together to eliminate waste from the body. This further involves another surgical procedure.

Colonoscopy is an imaging test performed to diagnose any abnormalities or changes in the rectum or the colon (large intestine). It is a minimally invasive procedure. Colonoscopy is done with the help of a colonoscope, which is a flexible, long tube with a tiny video camera placed at the tip of the colonoscope. The colonoscope is inserted into the patient's rectum and the doctor is able to see the in the colon and rectum very clearly. The colonoscope is very flexible in nature and can go through the entire length of the colon. It is a safe procedure that helps in diagnosing various problems at an early stage. It is possible to remove polyps or some other abnormal tissues easily with the colonoscope during the procedure, if needed. Colonoscopy is sometimes combined with biopsies, which are helpful for the doctor to take a biopsy tissue sample from the rectum or colon for further detailed analysis.

Coronary bypass surgery is a procedure that restores blood flow to your heart muscle by diverting the flow of blood around a section of a blocked artery in your heart. Coronary bypass surgery uses a healthy blood vessel taken from your leg, arm, chest or abdomen and connects it to the other arteries in your heart so that blood is bypassed around the diseased or blocked area. After a coronary bypass surgery, blood flow to your heart is improved. Coronary bypass surgery is just one option to treat heart disease.

Coronary bypass surgery improves symptoms, such as chest pain and shortness of breath due to poor blood flow to the heart. In some situations, coronary bypass surgery may improve your heart function and reduce your risk of dying of heart disease.

Cystoscopy is a procedure that allows the urologist to examine the inside of the bladder (where urine is stored) and the inside of the urethra (the tube that helps urine to flow out of the bladder). During this procedure, the urologist uses a hollow tube, named as cystoscope to see inside the patient’s urinary system especially the lining of the bladder and the tube (urethra). The cystoscope is equipped with an advanced lens and is inserted into the patient’s urethra and then slowly into the bladder. This procedure is mainly used to check any issues or problems inside the lower urinary tract and is specifically used to check the bladder lining problems. 
Sometimes, cystoscopy can be done to remove unwanted particle such as bladder stone from the bladder. This procedure may be used to take a biopsy or a sample tissue from the bladder lining to detect bladder cancer. Moreover, cystoscopy can also be used to place a catheter (thin drainage tube of urine). 

An echocardiogram is a type of ultrasound test which produces images of the heart valves and heart muscles. This test assists the doctor to examine the proper function of the heart by recording the heart beats. The images produced by the echocardiogram are live and can be further used to detect any heart abnormalities in the heart valves and muscles. Also, the quality of the pictures produced by this test is more enhanced than the X-ray. Echocardiogram also helps in recording the pumping of the heart. Echocardiogram or Echo, when used with Doppler ultrasound and color doppler assists in monitoring the blood flow carefully across the valves of the heart. An echocardiogram is a very safe and painless procedure as it does not exposes the patient to any kind of harmful radiations. Instead, it uses sound waves to create images of various structures of the heart with the help of a small probe called transducer.

Egg freezing is a process to preserve the reproductive potentials of a woman. The egg freezing process is also called oocyte cryopreservation. In this method, the eggs of the woman are harvested from the ovaries, and are frozen when unfertilized and stored to be used later. Egg freezing is also combined with the in vitro fertilization. The fertilized egg is then implanted in the woman’s uterus.

The procedure of egg freezing can be expensive.

The doctor helps to provide all the information about the Egg freezing procedure to the woman in detail, including the benefits and risks, and also assesses if the procedure is good for the woman.

An electrocardiogram is a noninvasive and safe procedure to monitor the electrical signals in the heart. Every time the heart beats, an electrical impulse moves through the heart. This electric impulse is generated by some special cells in the right upper heart chamber. Electrocardiogram, which is also known an EKG or ECG, helps to record the electrical impulse as they move through the heart. An electrocardiogram is advised, in order to help the doctor understand the irregularities in the rhythms or patterns of the heartbeat in a patient's heart. This further helps in detecting various abnormalities or heart problems. Electrocardiogram is a short and safe procedure and the patient can get the report on the same day, when the ECG procedure is performed. In this procedure, the electrodes or the test sensors are used to record the patterns of the heartbeat.


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