All Medical Procedures

Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) is an imaging test that is performed to diagnose gastrointestinal (digestive) and lung disorders. It is a minimally invasive procedure. Endoscopic ultrasound uses the sound waves of high frequency to produce images of the patient’s lining of the gastrointestinal tract and chest, along with some surrounding organs such as liver, pancreas and lymph nodes. Endoscopic ultrasound is sometimes combined with FNAC (Fine needle aspiration cytology), and helps the doctor to take a biopsy tissue sample from the chest or abdomen for further detailed analysis. This combined procedure of Endoscopic ultrasound and biopsy is also a minimally invasive procedure and is not an exploratory surgery. The endoscopic ultrasound procedure is an effective technique and is helpful in some other treatments like drainage of a pseudocyst. Endoscopic ultrasound procedure consists of a small ultrasound device installed at the head or tip of an endoscope (a small tube-like structure, flexible in nature with a light fitted in it). Endoscopic ultrasound is a safe procedure that helps in diagnosing various problems at an early stage.

Esophageal manometry (muh-NOM-uh-tree) is a test that gauges how well your esophagus works. Your esophagus is the long, muscular tube that connects your throat to your stomach. Esophageal manometry measures the rhythmic muscle contractions (peristalsis) that occur in your esophagus when you swallow. Esophageal manometry also measures the coordination and force exerted by the muscles of your esophagus.

During esophageal manometry, a thin, flexible tube (catheter) that contains sensors is passed through your nose, down your esophagus and into your stomach. Esophageal manometry can be helpful in diagnosing some mostly uncommon disorders that affect your esophagus.

Fetal ultrasound is a prenatal ultrasound also known as Sonogram. It is an imaging technique which uses high- frequency sound waves, not audible to the human ear, that are transferred by the abdomen through a small device known as a transducer to see inside the abdomen. It is a safe way to examine the growth and development of the baby. As a result, it forms the images of the baby in the uterus. Ultrasound helps to show the images of the developing baby, ovaries, amniotic sac and placenta. It also detects for any birth abnormalities. Fetal ultrasound helps to understand the profile of the growing baby and assists in managing the pregnancy in cases of any genetic defects, if present. The family can plan accordingly whether to continue or terminate the pregnancy. This ultrasound is also used to know the exact gestational age of the unborn.

Fetal ultrasound is usually done during the first trimester and then again in the second trimester (18-20 weeks) usually when the amniotic images are properly visible. Ultrasound can be done frequently in order to keep monitoring the baby’s health.

There is another enhanced imaging technique known as Transvaginal ultrasound, which produces a more magnified image of the baby. In this procedure, the probe is inserted through the vagina. This ultrasound is done usually in the early period of pregnancy to look for any problem in the ovaries or uterus. It helps prevent the risk of early labor as the test can assess if there is any shortening of the cervix.

First trimester screening refers to the prenatal screening test, which helps in early detection of an abnormality in the unborn fetus. Some of the abnormalities, which can emerge in an unborn fetus are genetic or chromosomal disorders like Down’s Syndrome (trisomy 21) and Edwards Syndrome (trisomy 18). The screening also helps to understand the profile of the growing baby. The First trimester screening test includes the following steps:

  1. Blood test – It is done to evaluate the Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and Pregnancy-associated Plasma Protein-A (PAPP-A), which are pregnancy- determined substances, in the expectant woman’s blood
  2. Ultrasound scan – It is done to examine the amount of clear space or area in the tissue located at the back of the neck of the fetus (nuchal translucency). In addition, a full pelvic scanning is also done.

First trimester screening test is advised between 11th and 14th week of pregnancy. By assessing the age of the expectant woman and the results of both the blood test and ultrasound scan, the doctor can diagnose if the unborn fetus has any chromosomal abnormality. This helps the family to decide on whether to continue with the pregnancy or terminate it.

If the risk level investigated is low, this screening test can provide early comfort and reassurance of a fit and healthy pregnancy.

If the risk level investigated is moderate to high, then the woman might go for some other definitive tests.

Gastric bypass surgery is a type of weight loss surgery in which some changes are made in the digestive system of the patient. These changes result in;

  1. lesser consumption of food by the patient as compared to earlier
  2. lesser absorption of the nutrients in the patient’s body

Gastric bypass surgery and related weight loss surgeries are performed only when the weight of the patient cannot be controlled by exercise or diet, or when the patient has some serious medical health problems due to obesity like type 2 diabetes, high blood pressure etc. There are various types of weight loss surgeries which are collectively known as bariatric surgery. Gastric bypass surgery is the gold standard among all bariatric surgeries and is performed very often. It has excellent safety profile and fewer complications. The patient is asked to follow a healthy lifestyle and proper   diet to ensure the long-term success of the bariatric surgeries.

The glucose challenge test measures your body's response to sugar (glucose). The glucose challenge test is done during pregnancy to screen for gestational diabetes — diabetes that develops during pregnancy.

The glucose challenge test is done in two steps. First you drink a sugary solution. One hour later, your blood sugar level is measured. The results of the glucose challenge test indicate whether you might have gestational diabetes.

If the test results are above normal, you'll need to have further testing to determine the diagnosis.

In hemodialysis, a machine filters wastes, salts and fluid from your blood when your kidneys are no longer healthy enough to do this work adequately. Hemodialysis is the most common way to treat advanced kidney failure. The procedure can help you carry on an active life despite failing kidneys.

Hemodialysis requires you to follow a strict treatment schedule, take medications regularly and, usually, make changes in your diet.

Hemodialysis is a serious responsibility, but you don't have to shoulder it alone. You'll work closely with your health care team, including a kidney specialist and other professionals with experience managing hemodialysis. You may be able to do hemodialysis at home.

Peritoneal (per-ih-toe-NEE-ul) dialysis is another way to remove waste products from your blood when your kidneys can no longer do the job adequately. During peritoneal dialysis, blood vessels in your abdominal lining (peritoneum) fill in for your kidneys, with the help of a cleansing fluid that flows into and out of the peritoneal space.

Hip replacement is a surgery performed to treat severe damage to the hips. During the Hip replacement surgery, the surgeon removes some damaged sections of the cartilage and bone in the hip and replaces it with metal or hard plastic parts. These replaced prosthesis or artificial joints help in decreasing the pain and enhancing the hip function. These artificial joints are fitted into the femur and pelvis, with or without the help of cement. Hip replacement is also known as hip arthroplasty. The doctors advise a hip replacement surgery if the hip interferes in the daily routine activities and if any conservative procedures have not been of much help. The most common reason for getting a hip replacement done is arthritis as arthritis causes pain, reduced motion and swelling in the joints. Hip replacement surgery helps in relieving such symptoms and improving the quality of life of the patient.

Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillators (ICDs) is a small pager-like device that prevents a patient from dying due to a heart attack. This device is implanted in the patient's chest and helps in detecting irregular heart rate. Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillators (ICDs) assists in decreasing the risk of cardiac arrest by detecting the abnormal functioning of the lower chambers of the heart (ventricles). Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillators (ICDs) is very important for patients with ventricular tachycardia i.e. very fast heart rate, arrhythmia i.e. irregular heart rate or improper supply of oxygen and blood from the heart to the rest of the body (ventricular fibrillation).

The main function of the Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillators (ICDs) is to diagnose and stop the abnormality or irregularity in the heart rhythms (arrhythmia). When needed, this device monitors the heartbeat continuously and delivers extra heartbeats or sometimes electrical shocks to maintain the normal heart rhythm again. Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillators (ICDs) is different from a pacemaker. A pacemaker helps in detecting and treating less harmful situations of irregular heart rhythms, which occur in the atria or upper heart chambers.

Knee replacement surgery — also known as knee arthroplasty (ARTH-row-plas-tee) — can help relieve pain and restore function in severely diseased knee joints. During knee replacement, a surgeon cuts away damaged bone and cartilage from your thighbone, shinbone and kneecap and replaces it with an artificial joint made of metal alloys, high-grade plastics and polymers.

The first artificial knees were little more than crude hinges. Now, you and your doctor can choose from a wide variety of designs that take into account your age, weight, activity level and overall health. Most knee replacement joints attempt to replicate your knee's natural ability to roll and glide as it bends.


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