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Parkinson's Disease

Parkinson's Disease: Causes, Symptoms, and Treatments Options

Dr. Anupam Jindal May 23, 2024

Parkinson's disease – What is it?

Parkinson’s disease is a neurological disorder that affect millions of people across the world every year. The disease is named after Dr James Parkinson, a British physician who first described the condition in 1817. The disease is characterised by a gradual loss of nerve cells in the brain, presumably those responsible for producing dopamine, a chemical messenger required for smooth and coordinated muscle movement. In India, the incidence of Parkinson’s disease is about 33 per 1,000 population.

Warning signs

The symptoms of Parkinson’s disease vary from patient to patient and develop slowly, initially involving one half of the body and spreading to the other side. The common symptoms include tremors, involving the hand, arms, leg, jaw and face. Other important symptoms include slowness of movement, rigidity, postural imbalance etc. As the disease progresses, the patient may experience non-motor symptoms like cognitive changes, mood disorders, sleep disturbance and autonomic dysfunction.


While the causes of Parkinson’s disease are not known, it is believed to be a combination of genetics and environmental factors. Certain quite mutations have been associated with increased risk of developing Parkinson’s disease, but most cases occur sporadically. Repeated head trauma (boxing or head injuries) may also play a role in triggering the disease. Though the disease affects a majority of patients in the fifth decade of life, ‘Young Onset,’ implying early onset in patients in their twenties is also known.


No single test cannot confirm the diagnosis. Medical history with clinical examination can help detect the condition. Pet Scan showing a decrease in dopamine uptake in substantia nigra (critical brain region for the production of dopamine) has been usually seen in Parkinson’s disease. MRI and CT brain is used mainly to rule out other conditions mimicking Parkinson’s and also in care of surgical planning.

Treatment options

Although several treatment options are available to manage symptoms and improve the quality of life. But there is no cure for Parkinson’s disease. Medications like Levodopa, MAO-B inhibition can help replenish dopamine levels in the brain and alleviate motor symptoms. Physical, occupational and speech therapies can also be beneficial in maintaining mobility and independence. In patients who develop drug-related side effects, Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) surgery can prove to be life changing. Living with Parkinson’s disease poses definite challenges for patients and their caregivers. It is important for the patient, family and healthcare workers to work in association and formulate a tailored plan for each patient. 


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Specialities: Heart Lung TransplantOrthopedic Cardiology InterventionalObstetrics & GynaecologyOnco RadiationNeurosurgery 

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Dr. Anupam Jindal
  • Neurosurgery | Neurosurgery
  • Date 25 Years
  • INR 1050

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